By: Salah Ed-Din A. Nefeily


Acknowledgements
Preface
Al-Fatiha, the Opening chapter of the muslims' glorious book Al -Quran.
Sura "Al-Fatiha"
Introduction to 'Al-Fatiha':
Al -Qur'an, The Muslim's Glorious Book:
Interpretation of the Qur'an (Tafsir)
Translating the meanings of the Qur'an
Sura Al-Fatiha Verse One
Verse Two
Verse Three
Verse Four
Verse Five
Verse six
Verse Seven
Ameen
Translations of the meanings of the Quran are used in this book
The following interpretations 0f the Quran were used in the book
References
Index

Islambasics Library: Highlights On the meaning of Al-Fatiha

Interpretation of the Qur'an (Tafsir):

To interpret the Qur'an, from an Islamic point of view, is to try to understand its meanings so as to follow Allah's instructions and avoid His prohibitions. However, we should put in mind that we will never come to a full understanding of the Qur'an for it is intended to be an everlasting miracle which reveals some of its secrets every now and then.

In his detailed book on the interpretation of Sura Al-Fatiha, Ahmed Ibn Ajiba points out that the first interpreter of the Qur'an is the Prophet Muhammad himself many of the prophet's sayings interpret verses in the Qur'an. It is also said that the first interpreter of the Qur'an is Ibn Abbas. He is the first to write on the subject. Most of the later interpreters quote from his interpretation. It is also said that Ali Ibn Abi Talib, the prophet's cousin is the first interpreter of the Qur'an. Ibn Abbas himself said: 'I learned the interpretation of the Qur'an from Ali'.

An interpreter of the Qur'an should have good knowledge of the Arabic language, history, sayings of the Prophet, Jurisprudence and other subjects as well. Muslims are requested to be acquainted with this field of knowledge. It is esteemed as a great subject because it deals with the greatest of books, the Qur'an. It aims at knowing the wisdom and the rules put by Allah for the good and happiness of humanity.

Some interpreters of the Qur'an approach its words lexically. They try to understand the literal meaning of its words. Others try to understand the implications of the Qur'an. Some other interpreters try to give reasons for the revelation of specific verses in the Qur'an. The three categories of interpreters actually help in understanding the Our'an.

The expansion of lslam both east and west since the second decade of its appearance made it necessary for Muslims to interpret the Qur'an for non-Arabs. One of the oldest interpretations of the Qur'an is the one written by Rafie Maliran Er-Riahi (died 90 After the Prophet's Higra.), Mujaliid Ibn Jabr (died 101 A.H.) Ataa Ibn Abi Rabah (died 114 A. H.). (Shihata 6). Professor Abdallah Shihata categorizes the early interpreters of the Qur'an into three schools:

1) Meccans, followers of Abd-Ullah Ibn Abbas.

2) Kufi (in Iraq), followers of Abd-Ullah Ibn Masoud.

3) Medinians, followers of Zayd Ibn Aslain.

 

The most important interpreters of the Qur'an in the next generations include:

1) Muqatil Ibn Sulayinan Al-Balkhi (died 150 A. H.)

2) Sufyan Ath-thawri (died 161 A. H.)

3) Wakieh son of Al-Garrah (died 197 A. H.)

4) Abdel-Razzaq Ibn Hammam As-Sanaani (died 207 A. H.)

Some of these early interpretations of the Qur'an are lost, but they are made use of by the famous Muhammad Ibn Garir At-Tabari (died 310 A. H.) in his famous and highly regarded interpretation of the Qur'an, which is so common nowadays.

Based on another criterion, interpreters of the Qur'an can be classified into two main groups. The first is that which bases its interpretation of the Qur'an on texts either of the Qur'an itself or of the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad and his companions. At-Tabari, Saiid Ibn Al- Musayab, Salim Ibn Abdullah belong to this group of interpreters. The other group of interpreters thought that it is possible to interpret the Qur'an on the basis of their own knowledge and logic. Shihata points out that the gap between the two groups of interpreters is not very big. An interpreter is supposed to make use of the texts when available. But when no textual evidence is available, an interpreter is supposed to use his own knowledge, mind and logic to understand the meaning of the verse. (7)

The following suras of the Qur'an were revealed to the prophet Muhammad in Mecca in the following chronological order:

1) Al-Alaq

 2) Nun

3) Al-Muz-Zammil

4) Al-Mud-Dathir

5) Al-Masad

6) At-Takwir 

7) Al-Aalaa

8) Al-Lail

9) Al-Fajr 

10) Ad-Duha

11) Ash-Sharh

12) Al-Asr

13) Al-Aadiat 

14) Al-Kawthar

15) Al-Takathur

16) Al-Maaoun

17) Al-Kafirun

18) Al-Fiyl

19) Al-Falaq

20) AN-Nas 

21) Al-Ekhl.21s

22) An-Nagm

23) Aabasa 

24) Al-Quadr

25) Ash-Shams

26) Al-Bumuj

27) At-Tiyn

28) Quraish

29) Al-Quahaa

30) Al-Qiyama

31) Al-Humaza

32) Al-Mursalat

33) Qaaf 

34) Al-Balad

35) At-Tariq

36) Al-Qamar

37) Saad

38) Al-Aaraaf 

39) Al-Jinn

40) Yasin

41) Al-Furquau

42) Fatir 

43) Mariam

44) Taba

45) Al-Waqiaa

46) Ash-Shu'araa 

47) An-Naml

48) Al-Quassas

49) Al-Israa

50) Yunus

51) Hud

52) Yusuf

53) Al-Hijr

54) Al-Anaam

55) Ass-Saffat

56) Luqman

57) Sabaa 

58) Az-Zumur

59) Ghafir 

60) Fussilat

61) Ash-Shura

62) Az-Zukhruf

63) Ad-Dukhan

64) Al-Jathiya

65) Al-Ahquaf

66) Az-Zariat

67) Al-Ghashiya 

68) Al-Kahf 

69) AN-Nahl  

70) Noah

71) Ibrahim

72) Al-Anbiyaa  

73) Al-Muominun 

74) As-Sajda

75) At-Tur

76) Al-Mulk

77) Al-Haqqa  

78) Al-Maarij

79 ) An-Nabaa

80) An-Naziaat  

81) Al-Inftar  

82) Al-Inshiquaq  

83) Ar-Rum   

84) Al-Ankabout  

85) Al-Mutatffifin   

 

Sum 96

68

73

74

111

81

87

92

89

93

94

17

100

108

102

107

109

105

103

104

112

53

80

97

91

85

95

106

101

75

104

77

50

90

86

54

38

7

72

36

25

35

19

20

56

26

27

28

17

10

11

12

15

6

37

31

34

39

40

37

42

43

44

45

46

51

88

18

16

71

14

21

23

32

52

67

68

70

78

79

82

84

30

29

83

 

 

 


 

The following suras were revealed to the prophet Muhammad in Medina in the following chronological order;

l) Al-Baquara 

2) A1-Anfal

3) Al-Imran 

4) Al-Ahzab

5) Al-Mumtahana

6) An-Nisaa  

7) Az-Zalzala   

8) Al-Hadid  

9) Muhammad   

10) Ar-Raad   

11) Ar-Rahman  

12) Al-Insan 

13) At-Talaq  

14) Al-Bayyina  

15) Al-Hashr   

16) An-Nasr  

17) An-Nour

18) Al-Hajj 

19) Al-Munafiqun  

20) Al-Mujadala  

21) Al-Hujurat

22) At-Tahriem  

23) Al-]umu`ah 

24) At-Taghabun  

25) As-Saff   

26) Al-Fat'h   

27) At-Tawbah  

28) Al-Ma'ida

2

8

3

33

60

4

99

57

47

13

55

76

65

98

59

110

24

22

63

58

49

66

62

64

61

48

9

5

 


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