A sick person and a traveler
are allowed to break their fast in Ramadaan. They must make up the days
they missed (by fasting other days) at a later time, even if the days
fasted consecutively. Allaah says:
"Whoever is ill or on a journey, then (he may break the fast and
instead fast) the same number of days missed, on other days. Allaah
you ease and He does not want to make things difficult for you." [Surah
Those who are not able to fast, such as the elderly man and elderly
(past age of childbearing), may
break their fast and instead feed a needy person for every day that is
This is due to their falling under the saying of Allaah:
"And as for those who cannot fast (because of difficulty) they
feed a needy person (for each day missed)" based on the
(of this ayah) found in authentic narrations of some of the Companions.
As a matter
of fact, this happened to one of the Companions, for Anas Ibn Maalik,
radyAllaah 'anhu, reported that he was weak one year and could not
fast. So he
made a bowl of porridge and called thirty needy people and fed them."
[Reported by Ad-Daraqutnee with an authentic chain of narration]
If a pregnant woman or a breast-feeding woman fears for herself or
children, she may break her fast and instead feed a needy person for
missed. This is based on her falling under the generality of the ruling
in the previous ayah. And according to the most correct opinion, these
two types of women do not have to make up for the missed days of
fasting (i. e.
by fasting other days).
It is not permissible for a menstruating woman and a postpartum
woman to observe the fast until they stop bleeding. So when they stop
they must make up for the days of fasting they missed. And they do not
make up for the prayers they missed during that time, as
is authentically established in the Prophet's Sunnah, where he said: "Is
it not true that when a woman is menstruating, she neither prays nor
fasts?" [Part of a hadeeth reported by Al-Bukhaaree]
Anyone that eats or drinks out of forgetfulness is not obligated to
for a missed day or to expiate. Rather, he must just complete his
that day). The Prophet, sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, said: "Whoever
forgets while he is fasting and eats or drinks, then let him complete
for it was indeed Allaah who fed him and gave him to drink." [Reported
by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]
The ruling for anyone that breaks the fast due to a mistake
or because he is forced to is the same ruling as that of the one who
fast out of forgetfulness. This is based on the generality of the
sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, saying: "Verily, Allaah has excused
my ummah (sins they commit due to) mistakes, forgetfulness and
are forced to do." [Reported by Ibn Maajah and others, and it is
authentic due to all of its paths of narration]
Whoever eats or drinks intentionally during the day in Ramadaan
valid excuse that allows him to do that has committed a sin and has
his fast. It is obligatory on him to repent from that great sin and to
that missed day of fasting.
Anyone that has sexual intercourse with his wife during the day in
while they are both fasting, both of their fasts are broken. And it is
obligatory for both of them or (perhaps) one of them to repent. And
both make up that broken day of fasting and he must do the Expiation
(kaffaarah). The Expiation is freeing a slave. If it is not possible to
slave, then he must fast two consecutive months. If he is not able to
then he must feed sixty needy people, as is stated in the story of the
had sexual intercourse with his wife during the day in Ramadaan.
And in some narrations of the hadeeth, other than that of
there is a command to make up for the missed day of fasting.
Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajr in Fath-ul-Baaree]
There is no harm in a person tasting food with his tongue, while he
fasting, on the condition that nothing enters (his throat). This is
since it is
not truthful to say that a person who tastes food is in fact eating or
No one is permitted to break the fast and make it up another day except
two, since Allaah did not mention a text for anyone besides them. "And
your Lord is not forgetful." So the fatwa given by some
(scholars) that it is permitted for school and college students to
This is the opinion of Ibn 'Abbaas and Ibn'Umar, radyAllaahu 'anhumaa.
is not known that any of the other Companions opposed them in that. For
discussion on this, refer to the book "Fasting in Ramadaan" of
Shaikh Saleem Al-Hilaalee and 'Alee Hasan 'Alee Abdul Hameed Al-Halabee.
Such as the one who thinks it is still nighttime and thus eats. Then it
clear to him that the sun has risen, and that it is Fajr. Or like the
hears the Aadhaan over the radio and thus breaks his fast, but finds
it is an Adhaan from another country that has a different timing.