The person who fasts
from down the flowing:
drink and sexual intercourse from dawn until sunset, In accordance with
the verse of the Quran : "Now therefore go unto
and seek what Allah has ordained for you, and eat and drink until the
thread of dawn be comes distinct from the black thread, then observe
fast till nightfall".
The black thread means
the darkness of night and the white thread means the light of day at
Every Muslim may,
during the night, satisfy his needs with regard to food, drink and
women when dawn comes he must abstain till sunset.
taking and the injection of nourishing solutions into the body (e.g.
or vitamins) are strictly forbidden.
Sexual intercourse must
be followed by complete ablution, i.e. a bath covering all parts of the
The Prophet forbade
Muslims who are fasting to indulge in any of the following :
(a) Obscene speech. The
Prophet said: "While fasting,
you shall not indulge in obscene speech or boisterous talk. If someone
insults you or quarrels with you, tell him : `I am one who fasts. "
Falsehood in speech or action. The Prophet said :
"He who does not abstain from false- hood in words or deeds, God has no
need for him to abstain from his food and drink."
c) Slander. One day the
Prophet passed by women who, while fasting, were gossiping.
He said :
"These two women abstained from what God had ordered them to do an
in what God had forbidden them to do".
Lying, lustful looks, false oath, slander and calumny. The Prophet
said : "Five things spoil a man's fast -
slander, calumny, the false oath and the lustful look."
Some ulama believe that
those forbidden things spoil one's fast. They base
their verdict on the Prophet's warning that "five
things spoil a man's fast... etc." and other ravings mentioned
They also base their verdict on a definite quotation. The Prophet said
:"there may be a man whose gain from his fast is
confind to hunger and thirst" These `ulama include Ibn Hazm and
the late rector of AI-Azhar, Sheikh Mahmoud Shaltout,
A second group
of `ulama blieve that these forbidden things do not spoil the fast, but
abstention from them makes one's fast more complete.
Companions had different opinions as to the fast of doubtful
days. Some of them permitted it, whilst is others forbade it. The
of the opposite has more weight because of a verdict pronounced by Abu
Ammar to the effect that "whoever fasts a doubtful day would, in fact
disobeying the Prophet."
man is permitted to fast, a doubtful day. should such a day fall within
the number of days which a man has been actually fasting. The Prophet's
instruction in this connection is : "No man
fast one or two days before Ramadan, unless he was already observing a
It is the custom
of the Muslims to look: for the crescent moon on the evening of 29th of
Sha'ban. If it does not appear, the following day is considered a
day being neither the end of Sha'ban nor the beginning of Ramadan. The
Muslims are not allowed to fast on such a day.
1) Ramadan fast is
spoiled if a person deliberately eats, drinks, or indulges
in sexual intercourse.
a) Deliberate eating or
drinking, spoils the fast and necessitates asking
b) Deliberate sexual
intercourse spoils the fast and necessitates qada
(restitution) of an other days' fast in place of it as well as Kaffara
Kaffara is to set free
a slave, or a fast of two consecutive months,or
the feeding of sixty poor people. This is based on the following story:
man told the Prophet : "I have commited a deadly sin.
Prophet asked : "what was it ?"
man said : "I slept with my wife during Ramadan
you any slave to set free?" the Prophet asked.
answered the man.
you fast for two consecutive months ?" the
said the man.
you afford to feed sixty poor people ?
again replied the man.
the Prophet went into his house, brought some dates and told the man :
"Take these and give them to some poor people."
man asked :"Can I find any poorer than my own family ?"
the Prophet said: "Then, take the to your family."
restitution, Abu Da'ud al- Athram and Ibn Maja reported that the
had ordered the man who, slept with his wife during Ramadan fast to
another day instead, in addition to the Kaffara.
2) Fasting is
also spoiled if a person deliberately vomits.
this case he has to fast a day in restitution. Abu Hurayra reported
the Prophet had said "He who forces himself to
shall fast another day instead".
vomiting. Abu Hurayra reported that the prophet had said "He
who is overcome by vomiting shall not make restitution".
2) The cupping of blood
from the head. Thabit Al Bannani asked Anas Iba
Malik : "Did the Prophet forbid head bleeding for the person who fasts
?" Anas said : "Not unless a person is weak".
Dreams. The Prophet is reported to have said that "a
man's fast is not spoiled for in voluntary vomiting or wet dreams."
eating or drinking. The Prophet said : "Allah
forgives my people for acts committed by mistake, or out of absent
and acts performed under compulsion." He
said that, "a man who fasts and who absent
mindedly eats or drinks shall continue his fast."
5) Rinsing the mouth
and bathing in an attempt to reduce the effect of the summer heat. One
of the Prophet's companions reported that he used "to
see the Prophet pour water on his head while he was fasting".
6) If a man
gets up in the morning in a state of ritual uncleanliness it does not
7) A man who eats,
drinks or sleeps with his wife thinking that it is still before dawn.
The same applies if he thinks that it is after sunset. There are two
opinions in this respect:
The fast is valid, for Allah said:
are not to blame for what you do by mistake, but you are for
Zayd Ibn Wahb is
reported to have said: "People broke the fast during the
time of Omar Ibn al-Khattab I have seen water vessels, brought from the
house of Hafsa, from which the people drank. Immediately, the sun
from behind a cloud. The people wanted to fast another day in
but Omar intervened. "Why ?" he asked. "By Allah, we did not mean any
(b) The other school of
thought makes restitution imperative.
Kohl does not spoil the
fast. The Prophet is reported to have used it while fasting in Ramadan.
The rule about
Kohl applies to eye drops ,eye drops, or nose drops even if they reach
the throat. This rule also covers snuff, road dust, intravenous,
or subcutaneous injections. Some scholars have included enema under
heading because it comes out again, drawing forth that which it is
that it draws out. The rule even applies to the smelling of strange
scents, to chewing gum, or tasting
food, provided nothing of it reaches the stomach. Abu Muhammad Ibn Hazm
summed it up as follows:
us, during the fast, from eating, drinking, sexual intercourse,
vomiting and sins. We know of no food or drink which could be consumed
through the anus, urethra, ear, eye, nose from a wound in the abdomen
head. Apart from food and drink we are not prohibited from letting
reach the stomach".