The Criterion Between The Allies Of the Merciful & The Allies Of the Devil

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  • The Criterion Between The Allies Of the Merciful & The Allies Of the Devil

  • Chapter 3

    There are some people who have some faith (imaan), and along with it some components of hypocrisy (nifaaq), as has come in the sahih hadith on the authority of Abdullah ibn Umar that the Prophet (sas) said:

    "Anyone in whom are found four things is a pure hypocrite, and if they have some degree of these things, they have that degree of hypocrisy until they change their ways: When they speak they lie, when they promise they break their promise, when they are given a trust they betray it, and when they engage in a truce they are treacherous."

    And in the two books of Muslim and Bukhari on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Prophet (sas) said:

    "Faith (imaan) is some seventy-odd components. The greatest of them is the pronouncement: There is no deity other than Allah, the least of them is removing something harmful from the road, and modesty is a component of faith."

    From these hadith, we understand that anyone in whom are found some of these components has some degree of hypocrisy until he changes his ways.

    Also in the two books of sahih, that the Prophet said to Abu Dharr, one of the best of the believers:

    "You are a man in whom there is jahiliya (pre-Islamic foolishness). Abu Dharr asked: "At my age, O messenger of Allah?" The Prophet said: "Yes".

    Also in a sahih hadith, the Prophet said:

    "Four things are found in my nation from the affairs of the jahiliya (pre-Islamic ignorance): pride in social status or class, casting doubt on peoples family origin, weeping and wailing over the dead, and praying for water using the stars."

    "The signs of the hypocrite are three: when he speaks he lies, when he promises he breaks his promise, and when he is trusted he betrays your trust." In one version of this hadith, the Prophet added: "...even if he fasts and prays and thinks that he is a Muslim."

    Imam Bukhari mentioned on the authority of Ibn Abi Maleeka that he said:

    "I met thirty of the companions of Muhammad (sas), every one of them fears for himself from hypocrisy."

    Allah said:

    [That which afflicted you on the day when the two armies met was by the permission of Allah, and that He would know the believers, and that he would know those who were hypocritical. It was said to them: "Fight in the path of Allah, or defend." They said: "If only we knew how to fight, we would follow you." They, on that day were closer to kufr than to imaan.] Qur'an 3/166-167

    Allah has described the band of hypocrites on that day as being closer to disbelief than to belief. It is clear that they combine some qualities of belief and some of disbelief, and that their disbelief is stronger than their degree of belief. Others mix kufr and imaan, but the imaan is stronger than the kufr.

    Since the allies of Allah are the pious (i.e. having taqwa) believers (Qur'an 10/62-64), it is clear that the degree of ones closeness to Allah (wilaya) is according to the degree of his faith (imaan) and his piety (taqwa). Thus, whoever is greater in faith and in piety, is greater in closeness of his relationship to Allah. So, people are of different degrees of closeness to Allah, in accordance to the difference in degree of their imaan and their taqwa. (Note: We are translating the word taqwa as piety for lack of a better word. Taqwa denotes both the mental state of piety, and the outward actions which may protect one from Allah's punishment, make one deserving of His mercy i.e. obedience.) In the same way, people differ in their degree of enmity to Allah ('adaawa) in accordance to their different degrees of disbelief (kufr) and hypocrisy (nifaaq). Allah said:

    [And whenever another sura is sent down, some of them say: "Which of you has been increased in faith by this?" As for those who believe, it has increased them in faith, and they they look forward to good. But those in whose hearts is sickness, have only been increased by it more disease on top of their disease until they die in a state of disbelief.] Qur'an 9/124-125

    [Verily An-nasee' (exchanging another month for one of the sacred months when one wishes to fight wars in the four months in which they are prohibited) is an increase in disbelief.] Qur'an 9/37

    [And Allah increased those who became guided in guidance, and granted them the characteristic of taqwa.]

    [In their hearts (i.e. the hypocrites) is a disease, and Allah increased them in disease.] Qur'an 2/10

    In these verses, Allah explains clearly that a single individual may contain a portion of closeness (wilaya) to Allah in accordance with his degree of faith, and, at the same time, a portion of enmity ('adaawa) to Allah in accordance with his degree of disbelief and hypocrisy. Allah said:

    [And those who believe increase in belief.] Qur'an 74/31

    [...that they may increase in faith in addition to their faith.] Qur'an 48/4

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