Understanding Islam , A Simplified introduction to the basic principles of Islam

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  • Understanding Islam , A Simplified introduction to the basic principles of Islam


    Chapter Four

    Easiness Of Obligations & Ridding Of Hardships And Embarrassment

    Social Dealings - Transaction

     Transaction here is meant as an economic activity, of all kinds. Allah has laid down the broad rules, and left the detailed procedures to time and place. Among these rules are: prohibition of usury, snobbery , cheating , wrong-doing , bearing false witness , false swearing and  squandering the property of orphans. In the case of disputes, forgiveness is recommended ; and Islam enjoins that judgment be meted out according to law and justice , and on the recognition of human and religious values, in general .

    The Family

    The family has a high place in Islam, being based on the bond of free marriage and self-sufficiency, with complete consent. Also to live with mutual kindness and Co-operation in the discharge of responsibility on the part of the married couple and with respect for each other.

    Allah Most High said:  

    "And you (men) must live with them (women) in equity and honour according to the manner and Islamic laws of matrimony. And should you take to them so much dislike; it may happen that you dislike something whereby God makes all grace abound "   (Sura 4: 19)

    And He gave the man the supervision in the family, as is the case with every group, which co-operates in affairs of mutual interest. .

    Allah Most High said:

    "And women have as much rights as they have of obligations in equity, and men are a step higher than they are in the scale of responsibility. " (Sura 2:228)

    And what nominated the male partner to this leadership is what Allah has granted him out of his (the male's) propensities and of what He has charged him with fending for the wife and all other members of the family.

    Allah Most High said: 

     “ Men are the tutelary guardians of women's interest and welfare by consequence of the inherent constitutional, qualities and attributes which God has invested in one above the other, and by virtue of the expenditure they incur. " (Sura 4 :34 )

    The basic principle of marriage is what it should be with a single female partner, and the permissibility of numbering up to four, observing the condition of the ability to provide for them, and equitable treatment among them in interaction; observing as well that Co-habitation and unlawful sexual-relations are prohibited.

    When a dispute arises between husband and wife, Islam calls for compromise and leniency, and if compromise proves impossible, and there is no way out of separation, then divorce becomes permissible; although Allah abhors it, if real need does not arise for that. Allah has told us to pronounce the intention to divorce several times within a prescribed period. This allows the husband and wife to think about what they are doing and give them the opportunity to repair their matrimonial life. It is the best treatment which recent laws have resorted to, just as , it had been in previous Divine religions.

    Islam has enjoined good care of the offspring, physically, intellectually, spiritually, and morally; just as it has enjoined the offspring to honour their parents; and Islam calls for continual contact between blood relations for the strengthening of family ties. It made inheritance within the family circle a legal right, both for young and old, according to the proportion, which the Noble Qur'an and Sunnah have laid down.

    The Political Estate

    Islam has founded the political estate upon the basis of Shari'ah consultation, justice and Co-operation based on good deeds: and so the ruler is responsible for (and to) his subjects, to provide for their good, and defend and protect them against evil or harm. The ruler must judge among them with justice. As for the ruled, they are requested to obey, in what is not disobedient to Allah. They should be loyal, arid Co-operative in giving useful advice and guidance.

    Allah Most High said:  

    "God commands you to characterize yourselves with habitual reverence, obedience and piety, and to restore the

    property and whatever you hold in trust, be it from God or from people, to those who have the rightful claim to it (and / or ) to those who have invested, you with the trust, and to exercise justice to the end that when you sit in judgment upon people, you be consonant with the principles of moral right and in accordance with reason and fact. In point of fact God only enjoins what is right and sound; how morally excellent is what He exhorts you to do, God is Omnipresent with illimitable audition, He sees all that you do.

    O you whose hearts have been touched with the Divine hand: obey God and be submissive to His will and obey the Apostle who is the only medium through whom God's guidance, command, ordinance and word are conveyed and expressed And obey those among you who, are invested with authority.  Nonetheless, should you seem resolved to dispute any subject or a concern, then resort to Cod's Book-the Qur'an- and betake yourselves to the Apostle for aid if in fact your hearts have been impressed with image of religious and spiritual virtues and you are strongly disposed to believe that the last Day is conformable to reality. This is a wise course of action that ensures safety and leads to the intended purpose " (Sura 4: 58-59)

    Allah Most High also said: 

    "And (O Mohammad) consult with them (the companions) upon matters of great moment, matters on which you received no divine authoritative instructions.” (Sura 3: 159)

    And He said:

    "And conduct their affairs and ordinary pursuits of life by taking counsel together to establish justice and integrity ", (Sura 42:38)

    On the basis of this, Islam guarantees to the Muslim, freedom of opinion for the common good of all, without stirring unrest or disintegrating unity, from the point of view of the obligation of building on encouraging the good and forbidding the repugnant.

    To guarantee security and the best Co-operation between, the ruler and the ruled, and among individuals one to the other. Islam has laid a system forrights, and to guard against the forbidden; such as protecting life, lineage , honour, wealth ,the intellect and religion. It has therefore ordained disciplinary punishment . or retribution which in some cases , can amount to the death penalty in the case of willful murder .

     And there are the penalties imposed for the good of society; since the evil organ, if left alone, will spoil the whole body.

    Allah Most High said: 

    "O you people who reflect : you have in the law of retaliation a bond with restraining force which puts a check on Willful murder, redresses your grievances and  confers on you protection and security, to the end that you ( may hopefully lift to God your inward sight and entertain the profound reverence dutiful to Him " (Sura 2:179)

    Islam laid down strict conditions and made reservation for proving these crimes, and the meting out of the punishment prescribed on them. And it is in the Hadith :" Try to prevent execution of the legal punishments-by searching for extenuating circumstances "suspicions".

     International Relations

    Islam has instituted these laws on the basis of peace as stated in the Holy Qur'an , Allah Most High said in connection with the rights of polytheists: 

    “ As long as  they stand true to you ,you  will have  to stand true to them. “(Sura 9:7)

    Then He said:

    “ If they incline to reconcile themselves with their own heart  and with God and make peace, then be willing to take that risk and incline thereto, and put your trust  in God; He is Omnipresent with illimitable audition. " (Sura 8: 61)

    And again He said:

     “O you people whose hearts reflect the image of religious and spiritual virtues : Enter into friendly relations with one another and promote all God’s requirement of peace and good order and do not follow the footsteps of Satan nor walk in the footsteps of those with characteristics befitting Satan :he is indeed your avowed enemy. " (Sura 2:208)


    The Legitimacy of war

    War is never ordained but out of necessity .That is , to ward off enmity and protect the sacred institutions and to safeguard the propagation of religion , in order to reach the whole world. Regarding the legitimacy of war generally,

    Allah Most High said: 

    “ And were it not that God represses some people by others, the world would have gone to mischief . " (Sura 2:251)

    Allah enjoined Muslims that whenever they waged war, they should observe the limits of necessity, concentrating on the principles of justice, mercy and equity and not kill those who are not engaged in the act of the war, and He prevents the destruction of no avail in breaking the force of the enemy, and in winning the battle

    As stated in the Holy Qur'an .

    Allah Most High said :  

    “ And make it  the heart of your purpose, to fight in the cause of God those who wage war against  you, but do not take the initiative to transgress; God dislikes those who go beyond the limits prescribed by Him "(Sura 2: 190)

    The injunctions of the Prophet and of his companions on this matter are many.

    War in Islam is never for the hatred of people ,forcing them to embrace Islam against their will. Creeds , are never inculcated by force .

    As Allah Most High has said, through the mouth of Noah:  

    "Shall We impose such spiritual enlightenment on you when you are prejudiced against it! " (Sura 11:28)

    Then He said to Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) as stated in the Holy Qur’an : 

    “ And say to them: < <God's truth has come to guide us into all truth and he who wishes to acknowledge it with  judgment and choice is free to do so and he who wishes to reject it is free to do so (Sura 18:29)


     The Rapidity Reason of Spreading Islam

            Allah Almighty has said: 

    “ Compulsion is incompatible with religion, therefore let there be no compulsion in religion Now has the path of rectitude been made distinct from the path of error and holiness from vindictiveness.  “(Sura 2:256)

    And so the Islamic conquests in the epoch of the Rightly Guided Caliphs , were based on this merciful principle.

    Therefore, the -rapidity with which Islam was spread never bad the sword for its reason; rather was it owing to what Islam conveyed or taught , out of the noble principles, for which the hearts of people had been  yearning, In order to lead them from darkness into light and owing to the wonder of the people at the character of the Muslims  who conversed with them during their travels and adventures, and by trade missions alike.

    By this way , many nations entered Islam voluntarily  at a time when the sword was weak as a result of the weakness of political authority. Indeed, there had been a time when every Muslim was considered a 'Caller to Islam , with wisdom and gentle advice as the Qur'an has  enjoined .


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