Issues regarding Supplications, their Virtues and Supplications of the Prophet (pbuh)
Allah, the Exalted, says:
"And your Rubb said: `Invoke Me, [i.e., believe in My Oneness (Islamic Monotheism)] (and ask Me for anything) I will respond to your (invocation).''' (40:60)
"Invoke your Rubb with humility and in secret. He likes not the aggressors.'' (7:55)
"And when My slaves ask you (O Muhammad (PBUH)) concerning Me, then (answer them), I am indeed near (to them by My Knowledge). I respond to the invocations of the supplicant when he calls on Me (without any mediator or intercessor).'' (2:186)
"Is not He (better than your gods) Who responds to the distressed one, when he calls on Him, and Who removes the evil?'' (27:62)
1465. An-Nu`man bin Bashir (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: The Prophet (PBUH) said, "Du`a (supplication) is worship.''
Commentary: What is prayer but an expression of one's humbleness and helplessness before Allah. The expression of one's weakness, inferiority and lowliness before the Infinite Power and Might of Allah is in fact the essence of worshipping Him. For this reason, prayer has been regarded as the essence of worship. Thus, prayer is reserved for Him Alone and it should not be addressed to anyone else in any case. Al-Qadi `Iyad said that Du`a is that act of worship which alone deserves to be referred to as `Ibadah, or worship, because when one observes it, one in fact shows drawing near to Allah, utter dedication to Him and rejection of all that He does not like and approve.
1466. `Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) liked comprehensive supplications or (Al-Jawami` - i.e., supplications with very few words but comprehensive in meanings), and discarded others.
1467. Anas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The supplication most often recited by the Prophet (PBUH) was: "Allahumma atina fid-dunya hasanatan, wa fil-akhirati hasanatan, wa qina `adhab-annar (O our Rubb! give us in this world that which is good and in the Hereafter that which is good, and save us from the punishment of the Fire).'''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
In the narration of Muslim it is added that whenever Anas supplicated, he used to beseech Allah with this Du`a.
Commentary: It is desirable to recite this Du`a which is mentioned in the Qur'an (2:201) and which comprehends all that is good both in this life and the Hereafter. The Prophet (PBUH) made it a habit to recite this Du`a, and the Companions were eager to follow him in all his words and actions.
1468. `Abdullah bin Mas`ud (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (PBUH) used to supplicate: "Allahumma inni as'alukal-huda, wat-tuqa, wal-`afafa, wal-ghina (O Allah! I beseech You for guidance, piety, chastity and contentment).''
Commentary: "Guidance'' means guidance towards virtue which one needs at every step. The ability to do good and steadfastness on the Right Path is also covered by the term guidance. To comply with the Orders of Allah and to prevent oneself from what He has forbidden is Taqwa (fear of Allah), the importance of which needs no elaboration. `Affaf is prevention from sins. It also means evasion from seeking help from others. Ghina means riches which makes one independent of others so much so that all one's hopes are centered on Allah Alone. The prayer quoted in this Hadith is very comprehensive indeed.
1469. Tariq bin Ashyam (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Whenever a man entered the fold of Islam, the Prophet (PBUH) would show him how to perform Salat and then direct him to supplicate: "Allahumm-aghfir li, warhamni, wa-hdini, wa `afini, warzuqni (O Allah! Forgive me, have mercy on me, guide me, guard me against harm and provide me with sustenance and salvation).'''
In another narration Tariq said: A man came to the Prophet (PBUH) and said to him: "O Messenger of Allah! What shall I say if I want to pray to my Rubb?'' He (PBUH) said, "Say: `Allahumma-ghfir li, warhamni, wa `afini, warzuqni (O Allah! Forgive me, have mercy on me, protect me and provide me with sustenance).' Surely, this supplication is better for you in this life and in the Hereafter.''
1470. `Abdullah bin `Amr bin Al-`As (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) supplicated: "Allahumma musarrifal-qulubi, sarrif qulubana `ala ta`atika (O Allah! Controller of the hearts, direct our hearts to Your obedience).''
Commentary: This is a very important prayer because through it one seeks steadfastness in virtue. Everybody's heart is always open to troubles, turmoil and ordeals and he is drifting from one situation to the other. If he is not supported by Allah, he can deviate from the Right Path at any moment. For this reason, he has been required to pray to Allah to save his heart from turning towards evils and keep it towards Allah, because it is He Alone Who is Capable of controlling hearts.
1471. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (PBUH) said, "Seek refuge in Allah against the turmoils, attacks of misfortunes, and evil of judgement and joys of the enemies.''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: The trouble of a trial which is unbearable for a person and from which he does not have the power to rid himself is called (juhd al-bala'), translated here as `turmoils'. Some people are of the opinion that it is synonymous with poverty combined with abundant children. But Al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar is of the view that it is only one of the several kinds of "Troubles of a Trial.'' "Ash-Shaqa' is the opposite of good fortune, that is, to pray for protection from misfortune. No Decision of Allah is wrong but some of His Decisions may be harmful for certain people while others are beneficial for them. This means that their goodness or badness is related to persons. What it signifies is that one should pray to Allah to keep one safe from such decisions which are harmful for him. "Shamatat'' the pleasure that one's enemy feels on one's trouble. In other words, it is prayed that Allah may protect one from any such trouble which is pleasing to one's enemy, because when a person is in trouble, his enemies feel pleasure over it. In this Hadith, one sentence was added by Abu Sufyan and during his old age he did not remember which one it was. But we learn from other Ahadith that it was "the pleasure of enemies''. (Ibn `Allan). This Hadith also shows the honesty and integrity of the narrators of Ahadith. They were honest to the extent that if a few words of supplication were added to a Hadith by its narrators, they would point it out. Some scholars have regarded these words an addition in the Hadith by its narrator, who is otherwise reliable, but it is not a problem of "addition of authority'' because in that case, the addition is the saying of the Prophet (PBUH) which is mentioned by one narrator and omitted by another. But here it is quite different as the narrator of the Hadith himself is pointing out the addition made by him. Such additional words are technically called "Mudraj''
1472. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) used to say: "Allahumm-aslih li diniyalladhi huwa `ismatu amri, wa aslih li dunyaya-llati fiha ma`ashi, wa aslih li akhirati-llati fiha ma`adi, waj`alil-hayata ziyadatan li fi kulli khair, waj`alil-mauta rahatan li min kulli sharrin (O Allah, make my religion easy for me by virtue of which my affairs are protected, set right for me my world where my life exists, make good for me my Hereafter which is my resort to which I have to return, and make my life prone to perform all types of good, and make death a comfort for me from every evil).''
Commentary: This is a very comprehensive prayer which simply means: "O Allah! Help me spend all my life in complete devotion to You, doing what You like and avoiding what You dislike.''
1473. `Ali (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said to me, "Recite: `Allahumma-hdini wa saddidni (O Allah! Direct me to the Right Path and make me adhere to the Straight Path).'' Another narration is: `Allahumma inni as'aluk-alhuda was-sadad (I beg You for guidance and uprightness).''
Commentary: "As-Sadad'' means correctness and uprightness. Here, it signifies "please grant me the ability to do everything in a correct manner'', that is in accordance with the practice of the Prophet (PBUH). Some scholars of Hadith have interpreted it as steadfastness and moderation. Both interpretations accord well with its original meanings.
1474. Anas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) used to supplicate: "Allahumma inni a`udhu bika minal-ajzi wal-kasali, wal-jubni wal-harami, wal-bukhli, wa a`udhu bika min `adhabil-qabri, wa a`udhu bika min fitnatil-mahya wal-mamat [O Allah! I seek refuge in You from helplessness (to do good), indolence, cowardice, senility, and miserliness; and I seek Your Protection against the torment of the grave and the trials of life and death].'' Another narration adds: "wa dala`id-daini wa ghalabatir-rijal (And from the burden of indebtedness and the tyranny of men).''
1475. Abu Bakr As-Siddiq (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I requested the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) to teach me a supplication which I could recite in my Salat (prayer). Thereupon he said, "Recite: `Allahumma inni zalamtu nafsi zulman kathiran, wa la yaghfirudh-dhunuba illa Anta, faghfir li maghfiratan min `indika, warhamni, innaka Antal-Ghafur-ur-Rahim (O Allah! I have considerably wronged myself. There is none to forgive the sins but You. So grant me pardon and have mercy on me. You are the Most Forgiving, the Most Compassionate).'''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: It is desirable to recite this prayer in Salat after Tashahhud and before Taslim. One can also recite it at all other times also.
1476. Abu Musa (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (PBUH) used to supplicate: "Allahumm-aghfir li khati'ati, wajahli, wa israfi fi amri, wa ma Anta a`lamu bihi minni. Allahumm-aghfir li jiddi wa hazli, wa khata'i wa `amdi, wa kullu dhalika `indi. Allahumm-aghfir li ma qaddamtu wa ma akhkhartu, wa ma asrartu, wa ma a`lantu, wa ma Anta a`lamu bihi minni. Antal-Muqaddimu, wa Antal-Mu'akhkhiru; wa Anta `ala kulli shai'in Qadir (O Allah! Forgive my errors, ignorance and immoderation in my affairs. You are better aware of my faults than myself. O Allah! Forgive my faults which I committed in seriousness or in fun deliberately or inadvertently. O Allah! Grant me pardon for those sins which I committed in the past and I may commit in future, which I committed in privacy or in public and all those sins of which You are better aware than me. You Alone can send whomever You will to Jannah, and You Alone can send whomever You will to Hell-fire and You are Omnipotent).''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: The Prophet (PBUH) was sinless but still he prayed earnestly to Allah for the forgiveness of his shortcomings. In fact, he did so to educate his followers. This prayer is an expression of one's utter humbleness and sincere repentance of sins.
1477. `Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported: The Prophet (PBUH) used to supplicate (in these words): "Allahumma inni audhu bika min sharri ma `amiltu, wa min sharri ma lam a`mal (O Allah! I seek refuge in You from the evil of that which I have done and the evil of that which I have not done).''
Commentary: This prayer is also very comprehensive. Sometimes a person does a virtuous deed but it is tainted with slight hypocrisy or pride. It is an element which destroys even the most virtuous deeds. It is this mischief against which Allah's Protection has been sought through this prayer.
1478. `Abdullah bin `Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) used to supplicate thus: "Allahumma inni a`udhu bika min zawali ni`matika, wa tahawwuli `afiyatika, wa fuja'ati niqmatika, wa jami`i sakhatika (O Allah! I seek refuge in You against the declining of Your Favours, passing of safety, the suddenness of Your punishment and all that which displeases You).''
Commentary: This is also a very comprehensive prayer. Allah has blessed man with innumerable gifts. One becomes conscious of them when one is deprived of any of them, hence it is said that the value of a blessing is realized at its loss. For eyes, ears, tongue, health, property, children and such countless blessings, we owe gratitude to Allah. In the prayer cited in this Hadith, one entreats Allah not to deprive of any blessing given to him. `Afiyah means safe from disease, grief and troubles. "Passing of the safety (`Afiyah)'' signifies the change from a state of good health to a state of illness and weakness or that one is overtaken by troubles and afflictions.
1479. Zaid bin Arqam (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) would supplicate: "Allahumma inni a`udhu bika minal-`ajzi wal-kasali, wal-bukhli wal-harami, wa `adhabil-qabri. Allahumma ati nafsi taqwaha, wa zakkiha Anta khairu man zakkaha, Anta waliyyuha wa maulaha. Allahumma inni a`udhu bika min `ilmin la yanfau`, wa min qalbin la yakhsha`u, wa min nafsin la tashba`u, wa min da`watin la yustajabu laha` [O Allah! I seek refuge in You from the inability (to do good), indolence, cowardice, miserliness, decrepitude and torment of the grave. O Allah! Grant me the sense of piety and purify my soul as You are the Best to purify it. You are its Guardian and its Protecting Friend. O Allah! I seek refuge in You from the knowledge which is not beneficial, and from a heart which does not fear (You), and from desire which is not satisfied, and from prayer which is not answered].''
Commentary: This Hadith contains the prayer for fear of Allah, beneficial knowledge (that is, the knowledge of the Qur'an and Hadith), patience and contentment.
1480. Ibn `Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) used to supplicate: "Allahumma laka aslamtu, wa bika amantu, wa `alaika tawakkaltu, wa ilaika anabtu, wa bika khasamtu, wa ilaika hakamtu. Faghfir li ma qaddamtu, wa ma akh-khartu, wa ma asrartu wa ma a`lantu, Antal-Muqaddimu, wa Antal-Mu`akhkhiru, la ilaha illa Anta (O Allah! to You I submit, in You I affirm my faith, in You I repose my trust, to You I turn in repentance and with Your Help I contend my adversaries and from You I seek judgement. O Allah! Grant me forgiveness for the faults which I made in past and those ones I may commit in the future, those which I committed secretly or openly. You Alone send whomever You will to Jannah, and You Alone send whomever You will to Hell-fire. There is none worthy of worship except You).'' Another narration adds: "La hawla wa la quwwata illa billah (There is no strength to resist evil and no power to do good except through Allah).''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: The prayer mentioned in this Hadith is, in fact, a Muslim's declaration to turn in every matter to Allah, and to care about His Pleasure and His Orders regarding every act. It is also a declaration to befriend people for His sake and to show enmity towards people for Him alone. May Allah give every Muslim the ability to make this prayer and to act according to the declaration that he makes through it.
1481. `Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported: The Prophet (PBUH) used to supplicate: "Allahumma inni a`udhu bika min fitnatin-nari, wa `adhabin-nari, wa min sharril-ghina wal-faqri (O Allah! I seek refuge in You from the trials and the torment of the Fire and from the evils of wealth and poverty).''
[Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi].
Commentary: "The evils of wealth'' signify that one becomes so captivated by wealth that in his struggle to acquire it, he fails to discriminate between the lawful and the unlawful, or one may become proud and arrogant on account of his riches. The evils of poverty that one loses hope of Allah's Mercy and Compassion, or shows resentment against his fate and the Will of Allah, or deviates from the principles and requirements of integrity and honesty.
1482. Ziyad bin `Ilaqah reported: My uncle Qutbah bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him) said that the Prophet (PBUH) used to supplicate: "Allahumma inni a`udhu bika min munkaratil-akhlaqi, wal-a`mali, wal-ahwa`i (O Allah! I seek refuge in You from undesirable manners, deeds, and aspirations).''
Commentary: The prayer is recited to seek Allah's Help in shunning bad manners and observing good manners and righteous deeds.
1483. Shakal bin Humaid (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I asked: "O Messenger of Allah, teach me a prayer.'' He (PBUH) said, "Say: Allahumma inni a`udhu bika min sharri sam`i, wa min sharri basari, wa min sharri lisani, wa min sharri qalbi,wa min sharri maniyyi (O Allah! I seek refuge in You from the evils of my hearing, the evils of my seeing, the evils of my tongue; the evils of my heart and the evils of passions).''
[Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi].
Commentary: The evil mischief of ears lies in lending them to lies, calumnies, backbiting and other forbidden things (music etc.), or closing the ears to the truth. The mischief of eyes lies in finding faults with people, looking at what is forbidden to look at, and ignoring the Signs of Allah scattered everywhere in the universe. The mischief of the heart lies in occupying one's heart with the love of anyone else other than Allah. "Mani'' (semen) is that sticky fluid which comes out of the male organ after sexual gratification. Here it means the sexual organs. The mischief of these lie in using them in a sinful act. One is advised to safeguard one's ears, eyes, heart, sexual organs, and all the organs of one's body against their improper use in order to gain the Pleasure of Allah. One will be accountable for all these things on the Day of Judgement.
1484. Anas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (PBUH) used to supplicate: "Allahumma inni a`udhu bika minal-barasi, wal-jununi, wal-judhami, wa sayyi'il-asqami' (O Allah! I seek refuge in You from leucoderma, insanity, leprosy and evil diseases).''
Commentary: Leucoderma is a disease which gives rise to the appearance of white spots on the skin of body. Leprosy is a disease which renders one's organs invalid. Madness is mental disorder. All these are very dangerous diseases. The Prophet (PBUH) has sought Allah's Protection against these and other diseases like paralysis, diabetes, facial paralysis, cancer, blindness, etc. May Allah save us from all such diseases.
1485. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) used to supplicate: "Allahumma inni a`udhu bika minal-ju`i, fa-innahu bi'sad-daji`u; wa a`udhu bika minal-khiyanati, fa-innaha bi'satil-bitanah' [O Allah! I seek refuge in You from hunger; surely, it is the worst companion. And I seek refuge in You from treachery; surely, it is a bad inner trait].''
1486. `Ali (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: A slave who had made a contract with his master to pay for his freedom, came to me and said: "I am unable to fulfill my obligation, so help me.'' He said to him: "Shall I not teach you a supplication which the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) taught me? It will surely prove so effective that if you have a debt as large as a huge mountain, Allah will surely pay it for you. Say: `Allahumm-akfini bihalalika `an haramika, wa aghnini bifadlika `amman siwaka (O Allah! Grant me enough of what You make lawful so that I may dispense with what You make unlawful, and enable me by Your Grace to dispense with all but You).''
Commentary: It is important to recite this Du`a in order to seek Allah's Help in paying one's debts and in avoiding to beg of people.
1487. `Imran bin Husain (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: The Prophet (PBUH) taught my father two statements to recite in his Du`a. These are: "Allahumma al-himni rushdi, wa a`idhni min sharri nafsi (O Allah! Inspire in me guidance and deliver me from the evils within myself).''
Commentary: "Al-Hidayah'' (guidance) means the ability to do good deeds. It is an indication of the right course for every action. "Deliver me from the evils within myself'' refers to the desires of the baser self which ruin both the worldly and religious life.
1488. Abul-Fadl Al-`Abbas bin `Abdul-Muttalib (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I asked the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) to teach me a supplication. He (PBUH) said, "Beg Allah for safety (from all evils in this world and in the Hereafter).'' I waited for some days and then I went to him again and asked him: "O Messenger of Allah Teach me to supplicate something from Allah.'' He said to me, "O Al-`Abbas, the uncle of Messenger of Allah! Beseech Allah to give you safety (Al-a'fiyah ) in this life and in the Hereafter.''
Commentary: The prayer for "Al-a' fiyah'' includes peace and safety of one's religion and one's welfare in this world as well as in the Hereafter. This is also a very comprehensive prayer.
1489. Shahr bin Haushab reported: I asked Umm Salamah (May Allah be pleased with her), "O Mother of the Believers! Which supplication did the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) make frequently when he was in your house?'' She said: "He (PBUH) supplicated frequently: `Ya muqallibal-qulubi, thabbit qalbi `ala dinika (O Controller of the hearts make my heart steadfast in Your religion).''
Commentary: Steadfastness in religion is the conduct of great men, which cannot be acquired without the special Grace of Allah. There occur many turns in a person's life when he becomes slack or negligent in religious matters or when he deviates from the course prescribed by religion. This prayer has outstanding importance for such people who are faced with such a situation. They should recite this prayer very frequently. In fact they should make its recitation a permanent feature.
1490. Abud-Darda' (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "One of Prophet Dawud's supplications was: `Allahumma inni as'aluka hubbaka, wa hubba man yuhibbuka, wal-`amalalladhi yuballighuni hubbaka. Allahumm-aj`al hubbaka ahabba ilayya min nafsi, wa ahli, wa minal-ma'il-baridi (O Allah! I ask You for Your Love, the love of those who love You, and deeds which will cause me to attain Your Love. O Allah! Make Your Love dearer to me than myself, my family and the cold water).'''
Commentary: This Hadith contains an inducement for the Love of Allah and highlights the importance of those who are devoted to Allah and their good deeds because it is the virtuous deeds which are a means of attaining the Love of Allah and His Nearness.
1491. Anas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "Recite frequently: `Ya Dhal-Jalali wal-Ikram! (O You, Possessor of glory and honour).'''
Commentary: This Hadith tells us that one should make abundant use of the words `Ya-Dhal-Jalali wal-Ikram' in his prayer because these words contain the Praise of Allah and mention His Perfect Attributes. Some have said that Al-Jalal and Al-Ikram are Allah's Greatest Name.
1492. Abu Umamah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) made many supplications which we did not memorize. We said to him: "O Messenger of Allah! You have made many supplications of which we do not remember anything.'' He said, "Shall I tell you a comprehensive prayer? Say: `Allahumma inni as'aluka min khairi ma sa'alaka minhu nabiyyuka Muhammadun sallallahu `alaihi wa sallam. Wa `a`udhu bika min sharri mas-ta`adha minhu nabiyyuka Muhammadun sallallahu `alaihi wa sallam. Wa Antal-Musta`anu, wa `alaikal-balaghu, wa la hawla wa la quwwata illa billah (O Allah, I beg to You the good which Your Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) begged of You; and I seek refuge in You from the evil where from Your Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) sought refuge. You are the One from Whom help is sought and Your is the responsibility to communicate (the truth). There is no power or strength except with Allah the Exalted, the Great.'''
Commentary: For those who do not remember many prayers, or cannot remember them, this is the best supplication to make. This shows part of Allah's Mercy upon his slaves and part of the easiness of practising Islam.
1493. Ibn Mas`ud (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: One of the supplications of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) was: "Allahumma inni as'aluka mujibati rahmatika, wa `aza'ima maghfiratika, was-salamata min kulli ithmin, wal-ghanimata min kulli birrin, wal-fawza bil-jannati, wannajata mina-nar (O Allah! I beg You for that which incites Your Mercy and the means of Your forgiveness, safety from every sin, the benefit from every good deed, success in attaining Jannah and deliverance from Fire).''
Commentary: Sheikh Al-Albani has regarded the Hadith as "Da`if'' (weak). One can, however, pray with the words quoted in this Hadith because these words contain prayer for Allah's Mercy and forgiveness, attainment of Jannah and protection from Hell. May Allah accept this prayer.