Major Sins

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  • Major Sins

  • 21) Accusing A Woman of Adultery

    Allah Most High says,

    {Those who slander chaste secured, and believing women are cursed in this life and in the hereafter: for them is a grievous chastisement. On the day when their tongues, their hands, and their feet will bear witness against them as to their as to their actions.}                      (24: 23-24)


    He also says,

    {And those who launch a charge against chaste women and produce not four witnesses (to support their allegations) -flog them with eighty stripes: and reject their evidence ever after: for such men are wicked transgressors.}                                                                                   (24: 4)


    Allah the Almighty in these verses makes it clear that whosoever unjustly accuses as chaste free woman of committing adultery is cursed both in this world and in the hereafter, and deserves grave chastisement.

    In addition, he is flogged with eighty lashes and his witness is not accepted even though he is just.

          In the Sahih Bukhari and Muslim -the Prophet says,

    “Avoid seven heinous sins…..”

    And among which he mentioned charging believing women, unmindful though innocent, with adultery"

    An example of such an accusation is if someone says to a Muslim chaste free woman:" You are an adulteress." or "a harlot", or "a whore" or to say to her husband, “you are the prostitute's husband" or to call her child as " the whore's child"

    The same rule is applied if someone slanders a man of committing adultery, or a free boy with pederasty. The unjust accuser in all the above cases must suffer eighty stripes unless he brings a testimony of four men who support his allegation. Otherwise, he must be flogged with eighty lashes upon the request of the offended person.

    The Prophet, too, forbade a man to wrongfully accuse his bondman or his slave girl of committing adultery.

    A person who accuses his maid servant with adultery, will be subjected to the punishment of slandering on the Day of Judgement unless he happens to be true"

                  A lot of ignorant people are indulged in such offenses which procure the chastisement in this world and in the hereafter.

    When a person says something unknowingly right or wrong, it may lead him to fall down in hell as far away as the distance between the east and west.


    Mu'az b. Jabal asked,

    "0 Messenger of Allah! Will we be called to account for what we say?" The Prophet answered “May you be lost to your mother! The people will be thrown with their face." down, into the hell only on account of the product of the tongues "i.e. their talking: He who believes in Allah and the Day of Resurrection should speak well. Otherwise, he should keep silent.”[1]


    Allah says,

    {Not a word does he utter but there is a vigilant Guardian.}                    (50:18)


    'Uqbah Ibn ' Amir once asked the Prophet (pbuh),

    "What is the salvation, Allah's Apostle?" The Prophet said, "Control your tongue, keep inside your house, and weep (be sorry) for your sins. And the person farthest from Allah will be the one whose heart is hard” [2]

            "Verily Allah dislikes the indecent obscene person [3]




    22) Misappropriating Spoils of War, Muslim Funds or Zakat

    Allah Most High says,

    If thou fearest treachery from any group, throw back (their covenant) to them, (so as to be) on equal terms: for Allah loveth not the treacherous.}                                                                             (8:58)

         He says too,

    {No Prophet could ever act dishonestly. If any person acts dishonestly he shall, on the Day of Judgement, restore what he misappropriated, then shall every soul receive its due whatever it earned.}           (2:161)

    Abu Hurairah heard the Prophet (pbuh) mentioning Ghulul, emphasizing its magnitude, and declaring that it was a grave sin, saying,

    "Do not commit Ghalul, for I would not like to see anyone amongst you on the day of Judgement, carrying over his neck a camel that will be grunting. Such a man will say,"O Allah's Apostle! Intercede with Allah for me!" and I will say," I cannot help you for I conveyed Allahs’ message to you. Nor would I like to see a man carrying over his neck a horse that will be neighing. Such a man will be saying," Allahs' Apostle! Intercede with Allah for me!" and I will reply," I cannot help you, for I conveyed Allahs' message to you". Nor should I like to see a man carrying over his neck a sheep that will be bleating, or one carrying over his neck a crying soul, or one carrying over his neck clothes which will be fluttering, or one carrying over his neck gold and silver. Such men will be saying,' 0 Allah's Apostle! Intercede with Allah for us, and I will say," I cannot help you for I conveyed Allah's message to you.”[4]

    Whosoever takes from these kinds of the spoils before they are distributed among the fighters or something from the Muslim's common treasury without the Imam's permission, or something from the Zakat fund which is assigned to the poor, will come on the Day of Judgement carrying it on his neck.

    The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "Render back (even) the thread and the needle, and shun Ghalul, for it puts man (who commits it) to shame on the Day of Judgement.”[5]

    The Prophet appointed a man named

    "Ibn Al-Lutaibah for collecting the Zakah. When he returned he said, "This (i.e. the Zakah) is for you and this has been given to me as a present: whereupon, the Prophet ascended the pulpit and gave a sermon, saying, "By Allah, whoever takes something from the resources of the Zakat (unlawfully) will meet Allah carrying it on his neck on the Day of Resurrection.

    Verily, I may know one of you who will meet Allah carrying on his neck a camel what will be grunting, or a cow that will be mooing, or a sheep that will be bleating. Then the Prophet raised his hands till we saw the whiteness of his armpits, and he said thrice "0 Allah! Have I not conveyed your message (to them)?”[6]


    Abu Hurairah narrated,

    "When we conquered Khaibar, we gained neither gold nor silver as booty, but we gained goods, food and clothes. Then we departed with Allah's apostle to the valley of Al-Qira", and at that time Allah's apostle had a slave of his called "Rifa'ah lbn Yazid who had been presented to him by a man who had leprosy. While the slave was dismounting the saddle of Allah's apostle, an arrow (its thrower was unknown) came and hit him. The people said, " Congratulations to him on his martyrdom". Allah's apostle said," No, by him in whose hand is my soul, he had a sheet (of cloth) which he had taken (illegally) on the day of Khaibar from the booty before its distribution and has become a flame of fire burning him.” On hearing that, a man brought one or two leather straps of shoes to the Prophet and said, "These are the things I took (illegally)”

    “This is a strap, or these are two straps, of fire", the Prophet said.” [7]


    `Abdullah Ibn ' Amr related,

    "There was a man who looked after the family and the belongings of the Prophet was called "Karkarah." The man died and Allah's apostle said," He is in the Hell fire. The people then went to look at him and found in his place a cloak he has stolen from the war booty.”[8]

    Zaid Ibn Khalid AI-Juhani narrated,

                  "A man has stolen something from the booty of Khaibar. As a result, the Prophet refused to observe the funeral prayer for him and said to his companions Observe prayer for your fellowman, (and I would never observe it for him because he has stolen (from the booty obtained from war) in the way of Allah"

    Zaid added, "We, then, searched that man, luggage and found therein some of the Jews pear's which were worth two drachmas.” [9]

    Imam Ahmad related, "Allah's apostle avoided prayer for none but the one who had stolen from the war booty and the one who had committed suicide. The Prophet said,

    "The gifts presented to official employees are a sort of Ghulul." And there are numerous Prophetic traditions related to this point, and some of them are mentioned in the chapter of "Injustice"[10]

    Injustice, generally speaking, may be classified into three categories:

    1. a) To violently spoil one's property.
    2. b) To act tyrannically by unjustly killing, beating or wounding people.
    3. c) To aggressively insult, curse, slander and ill-treat people. The Prophet, while being at"Mina"gave a sermon that ended:

    "0 People! Your belongings, and your honor are sacred to each other as sacred as this day, this month, and this city.” and: prayer is invalid without ablution, and charity is unlawful from Ghalul.” [11]


    23) Theft

    Allah says,

    {As to the thief, male or female, cut off his or her hand: retribution for their deed and exemplary punishment from Allah, and Allah is exalted in power, full of Wisdom.}                                (5:38)


    Ibn Shihab commented, 'I Allah severely punished whosoever steals people's property by cutting off his / her hand. And He is Almighty in retribution and full of wisdom in dispensing the penalty he has prescribed for thieves.

    The Prophet said,

                 "When an adulterer commits illegal sexual intercourse, then he is not a believer at the time he is doing it, and when somebody drinks an alcoholic drink, then he is not a believer at the time of drinking it, and when a thief steals, he is not a believer at the time he is stealing. The door of repentance is usually open ".

            Ibn 'Umar narrated, I' Allah's apostle cut off the hand of a thief for stealing a shield that was worth three dirhams.”[12]

         'Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) narrated, "The hand should be cut off for stealing something that is worth a quarter of a dinar or more.”[13]

    The Prophet said,

    "The hand of a thief was not cut off except for stealing something equal to a shield in value.” It was said, “ `Aishah: How much is shield worth?' She answered: "A quarter of a Dinar.”[14]


    According toariothernarration the Prophet said, "Cut off (hands and feet) for stealing what is worth a quarter of a Dinar, but not less".

    A quarter of a dinar, by then, was worth three "Dirhams."

    Abu Hurairah narrated the Prophet as saying,

                "Allah curses the thief who steals a "Baidhah" (or a helmet) for which his hand is to be cut off, or steals a rope for which his hand is to be cut off.”[15]

    Ai-' Amash commented, "People used to interpret "Baidhah" as an iron helmet, and they used to think that the rope may cost a few dirhams.


    `Aishah quoted,

    "A woman from Banu Makhzum used to borrow things and never give them back. Consequently, the Prophet passed an order to get her hand cut off.”[16]

    "The woman's people ~ame to Usama Ibn Zaid to intercede with the Prophet that he may pardon her. When Usamah spoke to Allah's apostle about that matter, Allah's apostle said, "Do you intercede (with me) to violate one of the legal penalties of Allah?" Then he got up and addressed the people, saying, "0 people! The nations before you went astray because if a noble person committed theft, they used to leave him, but if a weak person among them committed theft; they used to inflict the legal penalties on him. By Allah, if Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad committed theft, Muhammad would have cut off her hand!” [17]

    Abdul-Rahman Ibn Muhayriz asked Fudhalah Ibn Ubaid whether hanging the thiefs amputated hand to his neck is of the tradition of the Prophet. He said.

             "A thief was summoned before the Prophet who gave an order to cut off his hand and tie it to his neck.”[18]

    The Muslim Jurists viewed that a thiefs’ repentance is not valid unless he gives back what he has robbed. In case he is bankrupt, he should ask the real owner of the stolen thing to pardon him.


    24) Highwaymen Who Menace the Road

        Allah says,

    {The punishment of those who wage war against Allah and his Messenger, and strive with might and main for mischief through the land is: execution, or crucifixion, or the cutting off of hand and feet from opposite sides, or exile from the land that is chief disgrace in this world, and a heavy punishment is theirs in the hereafter.}                                                                                                                            (AI-Ma'idah: 33)

    AI- W ahidi comments, "To wage war against Allah and his Messenger means to disobey them." To strive for mischief through the land" refers to killing people, robbing them, and violently consuming their property. Hence, to take arms against a Muslim stands for fighting with Allah and his Messenger. Such an opinion was held by Imam Malik, Imam Shafi'i, and AI-Awza'i.

                 As to Allah's saying, "Execution................. Or exile from the land", AI-Wahidi said from Ibn 'Abbas that "or" in this verse is used for giving the choice and permissibility. Hence, the Imam- the Muslim

    leader has the full option to enforce killing, or crucifixion or banishment. AI-Hasan, Sa'id fun AI-Musayyab, and Mujahid supported this view.


               According to another narration through' Atiyyah, AI- W alibi said, "or" in the verse is not for permissibility, but it rather signifies the order of the legal rule "Hukm" in regard to the variant crimes. In other words, those who murder and plunder property must be killed and cru­cified. Those who only rob property, their hands and feet must be cut off and those who violently shed blood but do not rob property must be put to death. Finally, those who scare people in their ways but do not commit murder must be exiled from the land. Imam Shafi'i is quoted to hare the some previous view. He is mentioned as saying,” Each criminal is judged according to his/her offense. So, in case of killing and crucifixion, the evildoer should first be put to death lest he is painfully tortured. Then, he is crucified for three consecutive days and then let down.

    In case of killing only, the criminal is executed and his corpse is to be handed to his kinsmen to be buried.

    If the sentence of cutting off of hands or feet, the right hand is first to be lopped off and cauterized. If he returned to theft, his left leg should be severed. In the third time, his left hand should be amputated. Concerning the cutting off of thieves' hands and feet the Prophet said,

    "If someone committed theft cut off his hand, if he stole a second, cut off his leg, if he stole once again, cut off his (other) hand if he insisted on stealing, cut off his (other) leg.” [19]

    Abu Bakr and 'Vmar (May Allah be pleased with them all) were unanimously used to inflict such a legal rule upon thieves. Allah's saying" From opposite sides" illustrated the contrasting order in cutting off of a hand at then a leg.


    Ibn 'Abbas in his exegesis of Allah's saying {Or exile from the land } made open that if the thief is out of control, the Imam should pass a command to shed his blood in vain. But if he is under arrest, exile connotes imprisonment that restricts and hinders his freedom.



    25) The Engulfing Oath

    Allah says,

    {as for those who sell the faith they owe to Allah and their own solemn plighted word for a small price, they shall have no portion in the here after! Nor will Allah (Design to) speak to them or look at them on the Day of Judgement, nor will he clean them (of sin): they shall have a grievous chastisement.}                (3: 77)

    Al-Wahidi related, "The occasion of revelation of this verse was regarding two disputants who sought the Prophet to decide their case about a landed estate. At the time the defendant had been on the point of taking an oath[20], Allah revealed this verse. At once, he turned away from swearing and admitted the claimant's right to the estate.

    "Whosoever is ordered (by the ruler or the judge) to give an oath, and he takes a false oath in order to grab the property of a Muslim, he will incur Allah's Wrath when he meets Him on the Day of Resurrection.”

    Al-Ash 'ath said,

    "By Allah, this verse was revealed in my connection. A dispute broke out between me and a Jew who had denied my right to the ownership of a piece of land. I reported him to Allah's apostle who said to me: "Have you got an evidence (i.e. witness)? I replied, "No" He said to the Jewish man" swear in!" At this moment, I said, "0 Allah's Apostle! He, my opponent, will take the oath and consequently consume my property". For this Allah revealed, ''as for those who sell the faith…” [21]


    `Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud narrated the Prophet as saying, A person who swears falsely to take possession of Muslim's property unjustly, shall face the wrath of Allah on the Day of Judgement". 'Abdullah added, 'the Prophet recited the following verse from the holy Qur'an in support of this statement.

               {As for those who sell the faith........... }

    The Prophet said,

    "A person who usurps the right of a Muslim, by swearing (falsely) will be condemned by Allah the Exalted to the hell and will be derived of Paradise. A man asked, "0 Messenger of Allah! Even if it may be a small thing?" he the Prophet -answered, "Even if it be the (smallest) twig of a bush- tree.”[22]


    Abu Dhar narrated the Prophet say,

    "There are three people whom Allah will not talk to on the Day of Judgement, look at, or exonerate, and there is a painful chastisement for them ". They failed and they lost who are these persons, Allah's apostle? Upon this the Prophet remarked, "They are the draggers of lower garment, those who remind others of their favors, and the seller of goods by false oath.” [23]

    The Prophet also said,

    "The biggest sins are: to join others in worship with Allah, to be undutiful to one's parents, to kill somebody unlawfully, and to take (a false) oath- “AI-Ghamus[24]

    Of the forbidden oaths is swearing by other than Allah, such as: the Prophet, the Ka'bah, the angels, heaven, water, life, honesty, souls, the sultan's life, or his favor, or by someone's grave.

    The Prophet said,

    "Lo! Allah forbids you to swear by your fathers, so whosoever has to take an oath, he should swear by Allah or keep silent.”[25]

    He said too,

    "Do not swear by idols, nor by your fathers.”[26]

    "Whosoever swears by his honour is not from amongst us.” [27]

    "Whosoever takes an oath that if he does such and such act, or he is wrong, he may go out of Islam, then if he should turn out to be a liar he will be as he said (swore) and if he is proved to have spoken the truth then he will not come back to Islam without a stigma.” [28]


    Ibn 'Umar heard a man swearing by K'abah. Thereupon he said to  that man, "Do not swear by other than Allah for I have received the Prophet's words which concluded,

    "Whosoever swears by other than Allah has indeed disbelieved in Allah and ascribed partners to Him.”[29]

    By "disbelieved and ascribed partners to Him." some interpreters assimilate it as referring to the misdeed of the sin.

                     The Prophet said,

    "Hypocrisy stands for polytheism.”[30]

    He also said,

    "A person who takes an oath and swears (by error):" By Lat and "Uzzah", should at once affirm:" there is no god save Allah.”[31]

    Among the newly guided companions of the Prophet were some who spontaneously happened to use Al-Lat and A1- Uzzah as oaths. To them the Prophet gave a commandment to declare:" There is no god but Allah", as an expiation for what they have said.




    26) Taking People's Property Through Falsehood

         Injustice may be exercised by stealing people's property, beating and insulting them, or by violating and overbearing the weak persons.

         Allah, Almighty says,

    {Think not that Allah doeth not heed the deeds of those who do wrong. He but giveth them respite against a day when the eyes will fixedly stare in horror, they running forward with necks out stretched, their heads uplifted, their gaze returning not towards them, and their hearts a (gaping) void!

    So, warn mankind of the day when the wrath will reach them: then will the wrong doers say, "0 Lord! Respite us (if only) for a short time: we will answer Thy call, and follow the Messengers!"

    "What were ye not want to swear aforetime that ye should offer no decline? And ye dealt in the dwellings of men who wronged themselves, and you were clearly shown how we dealt with them, and we put forth (many) parables in your behoof}


     He, the Almighty also says,

       {The blame is only against those who oppress men with wrong-doing and insolently transgress beyond bounds through the land, defying right and justice: for such there will be a chastisement grievous.}                                                                                                             (Ash-Shura: 42)

    He Almighty says too:

    {And soon will the unjust know what vicissitudes their af­fairs will take!}          (Ash-Shu'ara': 227)

      The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "Verily Allah postpones taking any action against a tyrant (so that the cup of his sins may get full) and thereafter when he takes him to task, He will not let him escape.Then he Prophet recited, {Such is the chastisement of thy Lord when He chastises communities in the midst of their wrong: grievous, indeed, and severe is His chastisement.} [32]                                              (Hud:l02)

      The Prophet (pbuh) says,

         "Whosoever apprised another person concerning his reputation or anything else, he should beg him for forgiveness before the Day of Resurrection when there will be no money (to compensate for wrong deeds), but if he has good deeds, those good deeds will be taken from him according to his oppression which he has done, and if he has no good deeds, the sins of the oppressed person will be loaded on.” [33]

    Allah Almighty says in a Holy hadith,

              "0 my servants! I have made oppression forbidden on my part, so do not oppress each other.”[34]


    The Prophet asked his Companions, saying,

    "Do you know who is a pauper? The Companions replied that a pauper is a person who had no money or property. The holy Prophet elucidated the point, saying, a pauper from among my followers "Ummah" is one who will come on the Day of Judgement with a good record of Salah "Prayer" and "Sawm" Fasting and "Zakat", "the poor-due" but also abused somebody, slandered against somebody, usurped the goods of another person, had killed someone or beaten yet another person. Then, all the oppressed persons will receive a part of the aggressor's good deed- (as a compensation). Should they fall short of his aggression, then the aggrieved person' sins and misdeeds will be transformed from them to him, and he will be thrown into the fire (Hell)." [35]

    He also said,

    "Beware, from the curse of the oppressed as there is no screen between his invocation and Allah.” [36]


    "Whoever usurps even one span of the land of somebody, his neck will be encircled with it down to the seven earths on the Day of Resurrection.” [37]


           Allah the Almighty is quoted in a holy tradition, saying,

             "My anger is so agitated against those who oppress another person that has none for support except Me.”[38]

    Some of the righteous ancestors were always reciting, "Do not oppress the weak persons lest you might be of the most violent of the strongest ones."

    Abu Hurairah was quoted saying, "Verily, the bustard dies in its nests fearing from the oppressors.

    The Torah states, "Someone calls from behind the Path (Sirat), "O tyrant oppressors! O damned luxuriant! Allah, indeed, swears by His Might and Majesty that no oppressor will tread that path this Day­(Day of Doom).

    Jabir narrated,

    "When the people who had migrated to Ethiopia came back home and met with Allah's Apostle, he asked them saying, "Would you, please, inform me with some of the wonders you have experienced in the Ethiopian territories?" Whereupon some young men replied, "We would, O Allah's Apostle". They added, "While we were sitting, an old monastic woman bearing a jug of water on her head passed by us. Then, an Ethiopian young boy appeared and put his hand at her back and pushed her. As a result, she fell and her jug broke. When she stood up she angrily rebuked him saying," "0, treacherous! When Allah sets up His Throne, assembles the former and latter (generation), and when hands and feet shall confess what they had produced, then you will realize the (consequences of that) situation between you and me before Him (Allah)"

    The narrator said, "Allah's Apostle commented, crying, "She really spoke the truth: how does Allah bless people whose weak persons can not retaliate from the strong ones .”[39]

    The Prophet said,

    "Five (persons) deserve Allah's wrath and He has the full choice to chastise them in this world, or to adjourn their case to the Hereafter so that they shall return to the HellFire:

    1. a)     A people's ruler who receives his full right of his subjects but does not fulfill their rights from himself or guard them against himself,
    2. b) A people's commander whom they obey but he does not observe equality between the strong and the weak, and he talks in vain,
    3. c)A man who does not bid his wife and children to fulfil their duty to Allah, or teach them the affairs of their religion,
    4. d) A man who has engaged the services of someone but did not pay him and
    5. e) A man who consummated marriage with a woman but did not grant her a dowry.”[40]


    'Abdullah Ibn Salam related, "After Allah the Almighty had perfected the creation of mankind, they got up on their feet and directed their gazes towards the sky, saying, "O Lord! Whom would you give your help?" Allah declared, "I would grant My Help upon the offended until he gets his due right."

    W ahb Ibn Munabih narrated, "A tyrant king had built a palace for himself. Later, a poor old woman came and made a small hut of twigs beside the palace to reside therein. One day, while the king was wandering round the palace, he saw the hut. Angrily, he asked his servants, "Whose hut is this?" Once he was informed that it was owned by a poor woman, he gave a command to remove it. As the poor woman came and saw her hut in ruins, she questioned with sorrow, "Who has demolished my hut?" She was answered, "It was the king". At this moment she directed her face forward the sky and invoked Allah, saying, "O Lord! I was actually absent (when my hut was destroyed) but You are never absent!" At the time of her Du'a' Allah revealed to Gabriel to turn the palace upside down."

                 Khalid Ibn Barmak along with his son had once suffered imprisonment. Remembering the past days, the son said, "O father! After the luxuriant days we had, now we are in jail". His father replied, "O son! We paid no attention to the offender's invocation which Allah received and did not neglect".

    Zaid Ibn Hakim related, "I felt timid before no one except one whom I have wronged, knowing that he has none to defend him except Allah. And he says to me, "Sufficient for me is Allah, Allah is (the Judge) between you and me."


    Abu Umamah related, "On the Day of Judgement, the oppressors shall meet with their victims on the board of Hell. They shall recognize each other and remember their situation in this world. So, the offended would not allow their oppressors to pass unless they take of their good deeds (as compensation). If their good deeds ran out, the sins of the oppressed persons would be loaded on the oppressors.”[41]


    `Abdullah Ibn Unais narrated the Prophet say,

    "Allah will gather his worshipers on the Day of Judgement bare-footed, naked and uncircumcised. Then, a caller whose voice would reach near and far says, "I am the sovereign, I am the Judge. None of the dwellers of Hell shall enter it, and none of the dwellers of Paradise shall enter it with a misdeed until I castigate upon him, even in regard to a slap 'and what is more." Allah says, {And not one will thy lord treat with injustice}                                                                                                                               (AI-Kahf:49)

    Then, the Companions asked,

    How could we retaliate, while we will be summoned bare-footed, 'O Allah's Apostle?' He answered: 'By the good deeds and sins, which is a fitting recompense.’ {And not one will thy lord treat with injustice.}”[42]

         Kisra, the king of the Persians, had adopted an instructor to educate and culture his child. As soon as the child had attained the highest level of refinement and education, the instructor brought him only to harshly beat him for no reason. The child committed this situation to his memory until he came of age and succeeded the throne of his father as a king. One day, he sent for his old instructor to inquire from him about the reason for which he beat him. The instructor said,' Your Majesty! Just as you have got the most refined manners of cul­ture and merits, I became sure that you would succeed your father and be a king. Hence, I intended to let you taste beating and oppression so as to abandon it in dealing with your subjects". The little king replied "God bliss you!" He gave an order that he (the instructor) would be rewarded.


                  The Prophet said,

    "The invocation of the offended person ascends through the clouds. And Allah responds to it saying, "By My Might and Sovereignty, I will give you victory, even after a while.” [43]

    Of the most detestable forms of Persian is procrastination in re­paying one's due debts, while being able. The Prophet said,

                  "Procrastination (delay) in repaying debts by a wealthy person is injustice.” [44]

    "The delay in the payment of debt by one who can afford to pay is injustice that justifies his defamation and torture by the lender.” [45]

    Defamation means that the lender tells him in public that he has delayed the payment. Torture stands for legal imprisonment.

                    To deprive a woman of her due dowry, expenditures and draping is a form of injustice. 'Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud says, "Each man and woman on the Day of Resurrection will be openly shown before all creatures, and it will be said, This is so-and-so. Let those who have a claim of something over him come and get it back". Hence, the Prophet said, "Women shall rejoice as they regain their due rights from their fathers, brothers or husbands. Then,' Abdullah Ibn Ma'sud recited, {There will be no more relationships between them that day, nor will one ask after another}                                               (AI-Mu'minun: 101)

    He added, "Allah will then be tolerant with him in regard to his Own due rights, but not so in the people's. Thereupon, such a man or woman will be set up and Allah will say to the owners of the rights "Come and take back your rights.” Accordingly, Allah will command the angels, saying, "Take of his/her good deeds and give every right owner his/her due." In case such a man or woman is righteous and there is a little bit of his good deeds left behind, Allah will multiply it manifolds so as to admit him to Paradise. But if he was a wretched person, and nothing of his good deeds remains, the angels would say, "O Lord! His good deeds are over and he is still indebted, so, Allah will say, "Take of their sins and load on him." Finally, such a man will be cast into the Fire."

            To employ a laborer and not to pay him is a type of injustice. The Prophet mentioned Allah say,

               "I will be an opponent to three types of people on the Day of Resurrection:

    1. a) One who makes a covenant in my name, but proves treacherous,
    2. b) One who sells a free person and eats his price,
    3. c)And one who employs a laborer and takes full work from him but does not pay him for his labor.”[46]

    The same rule is dispensed if a Muslim committed any injustices against a Jew or a Christian, for it is subject to Allah's saying, I am His opponent." It also applies if someone took an oath regarding a debt upon himself and he was lying.

    The Prophet said,

    "Allah has decreed the fire of Hell for a person who usurps the property of a Muslim through false oath and debarred him from Paradise.” A Companion asked, "0 Messenger of Allah! Even if it is a worthless something?” The Prophet replied, "Even if it be the twig of a bush.” [47]

    Verily, the most abominable thing before a man's eye on the Day of Resurrection is to face the one whom he had oppressed in this life and who will sue for retaliation.

    The Prophet said,

    "Allah will definitely enforce the settlement of all the dues to those entitled to receive them on the Day of Judgement, even the wrong done to a hornless goat by a horned one will be redressed.” [48]

    The Prophet said,

    "The first to dispute with each other on the Day of Resurrection are a husband and his wife. By Allah, her tongue will not speak but her hands and feet shall bear witness against her in regard to what she used to mar for her husband in this world. Whereas man's hands and feet shall be witnesses against him for what good and bad he has treated his wife with. Later, a man will face a similar position concerning his servants. On this occasion, no "Qirats" or "Dawaniqs" shall be available (as a compensation), but the oppressors good deeds shall be granted to the offended, and the offended persons' sins shall be loaded on the oppressors. Then, the tyrants would be brought in funnels and led to the fire.”[49]

    Shareih, the Judge, used to say, "The oppressors shall indeed, recognize the offender's right, for the oppressor is waiting for chastisement, while the oppressed will have victory and reward.

    It has been even related that when Allah wills good for one of His servants, He sets him open to oppression by someone. One day, Taus AI- Yamani entered at Hisham Ibn AI-Malik and said to him, "Observe your duty towards Allah lest He may punish you on the Day of (Ad­han) Call! Hisham asked, "What is the Day of Adhan"?

    So, Taus recited Allah's saying,

                 {A Crier shall proclaim between them: "The curse of Allah is on the wrongdoers.}                                                (AI-' Araf: 44)

    As a result Hisham got stupefied. Thereupon, Taus concluded, "This is merely the humiliation of the description, how shameful is the humiliation of the practical commitment.” [50]

    0 you who is content to be an oppressor! How many wrong deeds are yours? The prison on the Day of Judgment is Hell, and the Judge is the Truth (Allah).

                      Avoid being in the wrongdoers' presence, treating and helping them.


    Allah says,

    {And incline not to those who do wrong, or the fire will touch you, and you have no protectors other than Allah, nor shall you be helped.}                                                                                                   (Hud:113)


    Inclination here stands for being tranquil and pleased with them. In the exegesis of this verse Ibn ' Abbas commented, "Do not be over inclined to them in love, talking and attachment. AI-Sadiyy and Ibn Zaid assimilated it as, "Not to flatter the oppressors."

    Akrimah added, "To obey and try to gain favor with them." Allah says,

    {Bring ye up "It shall be said” the wrongdoers and their spouses, and the things they worshipped.}

                                                      (As-Saffat: 22)

    The Prophet said,

    "There will be commanders attended by servants , and suits who may do mischief and commit lying. Whosoever attaches to them, believed their lying and supported them in their injustice does not belong to me and I do not belong to him. And whosoever avoided their gatherings and did not associate with them belongs to me and I belong to him. "

    He said too,

                "Whosoever stands for an oppressor will be afflicted by him.” [51]


    Sa'id Ibn Al-Mussayyab mentioned, "Do not stare the wrongdoers in the face except with disapproval (against their misdeeds), lest your good deeds come to nothing."

    Makhul Ad-Dimashqi related, "On the Day of Judgement there will be a caller who proclaims where are the oppressors and their assistants?" Accordingly, everyone who might have brought him ink, fill in their inkwells, or even get their pens nibbled will be gathered with them. Whereupon they shall be assembled together in a box of fire and be thrown in Hell."

    One day, a sailor came to Suffyan Al- Thauri and said, "I sew the sultan's dresses. Am I then one of the oppressors' assistants? Suffyan replied, "You are, by this of the very oppressors. By the oppressors assistants are, even those who buy needles and thread."

    The Prophet said,

    "The first to tread the fire on the Day of Judgement are the worshipers who unjustly lash people with the order of the oppressors.”

    It is related that Allah revealed to Moses that his people should re­cite nothing of Allah's divine revelation. The reason was that Allah (was angry with them and) always mentions whoever invokes Him. Allah's mentioning of them was by way of cursing them."

    He also said,

    "Let none of you remain indifferently witnessing a situation wherein an innocent person is wrongfully treated and beaten. For, the curse of Allah then inflicts whomsoever attend but did not defend him.”[52]

    He said too,

    "The angels have raised a dead man from his tomb and said to him.

    "We are going to beat you with a hundred blows. So, he kept interceding with them until the number decreased down to only one blow. Once they hit him, the tomb got ignited. Then he asked the, "Whey did you hit me". They answered "you have observed a Prayer without performing the vital ablution, and you have witnessed a wronged man but did not help him.”[53]

            Such is the state of an able man who denied supporting an offended person. Then, what about the oppressors themselves?

            The Prophet said,

               "Help your brother whether he is an oppressor or oppressed person. A companion asked, "Messenger of Allah! (It is true) I will help him if he is an oppressed person, but please, tell me how I am to help him if he happens to be an oppressor!" The Prophet answered, "Prevent him from doing injustice. Because preventing him from committing aggression is a help to him.”[54]

    One of the pious scholars related, "A man who was used to serve the supporter and tax collectors came to me in my dream. He appeared in a very miserable state. I asked him, "How are1you?" He answered, "Very bad." I said, "Where were you led?' "To the chastisement decreed by Allah." He replied, "I questioned him further, "How do the wrong-doers fell before Him (Allah)?" He answered, "Have not you recited Allah's saying,

    {And soon will the unjust know what vicissitudes their affairs will take!}        (Ash-Shu'ara': 227)


    Someone related saying, "I saw a man whose arm was amputated, loudly announcing, "Let each person who has witnessed me act unjustly against none!" I approached him and said, "O brother! Tell me, please, about your case!" He replied, "My case is so astonishing. I used to serve the suppressors. One day, I came across a fisherman who had just caught a big fish that appealed to me. I ordered him to give it to me, but he refused. He said he would sell it and get some food for his children. So, I hit him violently, got the fish and left ahead.

    While I was walking down the street, with the fish in my hand, it bit my thumb so severely. When I got home, and as I set it down on the table, it hit my thumb once again so painfully that I could not sleep that night. My hand began to swell. In the morning, I went to a doctor to check it, and he told me that my thumb suffered from gangrene and it has to be cut off, lest the infection might reach the rest of my hand. So, I let him cut my thump off. After a while, my hand started to hurt me so much, and I was advised to cut it off, and I did. Bit by bit, the gangrene took me so ill that I had to amputate my whole arm up to the scapula.

    When I mentioned this story to some people they commented saying if I had gone from the beginning to the fisherman and asked him to pardon me I would not have suffered all this fatigue. And they bade me to go at once after that fisherman and beg his forgiveness.


    I left right away searching of him until I found him. Whereupon I kneeled down kissing his feet asking for his tolerance. He said to me, "Who are you?" I answered, "I am the man who had unjustly taken away your fish." Then, I got him acquainted with what happened to me.


    As he saw my arm he wept deeply and said, "O brother! I have pardoned you."


    I asked, "Have you invoked Allah against me when I took your fish?' he replied, "yes! I supplicated to Allah saying, "O Lord! That man has unjustly abused his strength and deprived me of what You have provided for me. So, let me, please, observe Your Might by punishing him!"


              At this moment I said, "O sir! You have indeed got your demand, and I will never serve the transgressors as long as I am alive."

    27) Collecting Taxes[55]

    Allah says,

    {The blame is only against those who oppress men with wrongdoing and insolently transgress beyond bounds through the land, defying right and justice: for such there will be a chastisement grievous.}

                                                                                                                                                      (Ash-Shura: 42)

    The tax collector is one of the closest supporters of the oppressors. Rather he may be of the oppressors. He takes what is not lawful to him and gives it to those who do not deserve it. Hence, the Prophet declared,

    "The tax collector will not tread Paradise.” [56]

            Concerning the woman who has turned to Allah in repentance, as she had committed adultery, the Prophet said,

    "She has turned to Allah in repentance in such a manner that if observed by an unjust tax collector he would be forgiven or it would be accepted.” [57]

            The unlawful tribute collector is compared to the high way robber. Moreover, the one who collects the tax, the one who serves as a witness to it, and the one who usurps it are all alike in being partners in this wrongdoing.

    He also said,

    "No flesh fed by ill-gained property will be admitted to Paradise. But rather, it would be flying in Hell.” [58]

    The ill-gotten property is the detestable wealth which puts its owner to shame, and is mentioned by Imam Al-Wahidi in his exegesis of Allah's saying,


    {Say! Never are the good and the bad alike.}

                                                                                                           (Al-Ma'idah: 100)

    Jabir related,

    "A man came to the Prophet and said, "0 Allah's Apostle! Wine was my trade business that fetched me much money. So, would that money benefit me if I employed it in Allah's cause?" The Prophet replied, "If you were to spend it in performing Pilgrimage, in Allah's way, or in alms-giving, it would avail you no benefit, for Allah is good and accepts only what is good". In confirmation to this Allah revealed, {Say! "Not equal are things that are bad and things that are good, even though the abundance of the bad may dazzle you.}                                                                                                              (Al-Ma'idah:100)”[59]


              Ata' and AI-Hasan interpreted this verse as referring to both the  lawful and the unlawful things.



    28) The Consumption of Haram

            Allah, Glorified and Exalted be He, cautions us saying,

    {And do not eat up your property among yourselves for vanities.}                 (AI-Baqarah: 188)


    The verse means that Muslims are commanded by Allah to avoid taking the property of each other’s through illegal means. Abdullah Ibn  `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them both) said, "What is meant in the verse are the false oaths through which a person takes the property of another with no right."

    The consumption of Haram is of two kinds:

            1) Taking another's property through oppression such as in cases of treachery and robbery.

            2) Taking other's property through unlawful forms of sports and games such as gambling and the lottery.

    The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) has condemned the consumption of the Haram in many hadiths. Here, we will quote the following hadiths to explain the gravity of this heinous sin:

    The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

    "Some people spend Allah's wealth (i.e., the Muslims' wealth) in an unjust manner; such people will be put in the Hell on the Day of Judgment.”[60]


    "... Then he mentioned (the case of) a man who, having journeyed far, is disheveled and dusty and who spreads out his hands to the sky saying, 0 Lord! 0 Lord! While his food is unlawful, his drink unlawful, his clothing unlawful, and he is nourished unlawfully, how can he be answered?” [61]

    Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) said to the prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) '0 Messenger of Allah! Supplicate to Allah for me to make my Du'a' acceptable." The Messenger (pbuh) replied,

    "0 Anas! To have an acceptable Du'a', you should eat only the Halal (Lawful) since a person may be deprived of his D~t'a' being answered for forty days because of eating a mouthful of Haram food.” [62]

    "Allah has decreed your behavior as He has decreed your provision. Surely, Allah grants the joys of this world to those whom He loves and those whom He loves not, but He does not grant religion except to those whom He loves. Therefore, those who are blessed with religion receive Allah's Love. Assuredly, no one earns Haram money but what he spends, gives as charity or leaves behind will be his fuel in Hell-fire. Verily Allah does not obliterate evil by means of evil, but He obliterates evil by means of good. .”[63]


    "This worldly life is joyful and attractive. Therefore, whoever earns property through lawful means and spends it in a legal manner, Allah will reward him with Paradise. On the other hand, whoever earns property through unlawful means and spends it in illegal ends, Allah will make him dwell in the abode of humiliation (Hell). Some people also spend Allah's wealth in an unjust manner according to their whims,. Such people will be put in the Hell on the Day of Judgment.”[64]

    "Whoever pays no attention to the sources of his money, Allah will not concern about which gate he would enter Hell-Fire.”

            Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) reported a hadith that reads,

              "To fill his mouth with dust is better to a person than putting Haram things in it.” [65]

    Yusuf Ibn Asbat (may Allah bestow mercy on him) said, "When a young man dedicates his life to worship, Satan asks his assistants about the source of his livelihood. If it is Haram, Satan says, 'Don't bother about his worship and dedication for his consumption of the Haram is sufficient to make his work null and void.'" This means that worship will be of no avail when the worshiper insists on eating Haram. This meaning is maintained by the aforementioned Hadith that,

    "... A man who, having journeyed far, is disheveled and dusty and who spreads out his hands to the sky (saying),  'O Lord! O Lord!' while his food is unlawful, his drink unlawful, his clothing unlawful, and he is nourished unlawfully, how can he be answered?” [66]


    It is reported in the hadith that,

    "Every day and night, an angel calls upon people from above Jerusalem,

    'Whoever indulges in eating Haram, Allah will never accept his optional or obligatory acts of worship."

    'Abdullah Ibn AI-Mubarak said, "Keeping myself clean from consuming a doubtful dirham is more charitable to me than giving 100,000 dirhams in charity."


    The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "When the pilgrim, who journeys to Hajj, by Haram money, says. 'Here I am! At your service." Our Lord, here I am! At your service. Allah will say to him, "your calling is rejected and your Hajj is valueless.”[67]


    He (pbuh) also said,

    "Whoever purchases a garment by ten dirhams which contain a Haram dirham, Allah never accepts his prayer as long as he wears this garment.”[68]

    Wuhaib Ibn AI-Ward said, "If you were to stand in Prayer equally as this column stands in the mosque, it would be of no avail until you take care about your livelihood, i.e., to verify what is lawful from what is Haram."

    Ibn 'Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them both) said, "Allah never accepts the Prayer of a man who feed on Haram until he repents."


    Similar to the one who spends unlawful money in disobedience of Allah is the one who purifies his garment by urine. Assuredly, only water can purify one's garment just only as the lawful can obliterate sins."

              'Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "We used to abstain from nine tenths of Halal lest it may contain a Haram."

              Ka'b Ibn 'Ayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) reported the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) to have said,

                “A body that is nourished unlawfully will not enter paradise.” [69]

    Zaid Ibn Arqam reported that, "Abu Bakr had a slave who used to give him some of his earnings. Abu Bakr used to eat from it. One day he brought something and Abu Bakr ate from it. The slave said to him, 'Do you know what is this?' The slave said, 'Once, in the Pre-Islamic Period of ignorance I told somebody's future though I did not know this knowledge of foretelling but I cheated him, and when he met me, he gave me something for that service, and that is what you have eaten from. Then Abu Bakr put his hand in his mouth and vomited whatever was present in his stomach." Later on, Abu Bakr was asked, “O Abu Bakr! Have you done all this because of a Haram mouthful?" He replied, "By Allah! If I were to perish myself to get this mouthful out of me, I would have no hesitation to do so because I heard the Messenger of Allah say,

              'Everybody that is nourished unlawfully, Hell would be his abode.” [70]



    However, the Muslim scholars state that the consumption of Haram includes various major sins such as treachery, oppression, robbery, usury, taking the orphan's property with no right, false witness, bribery, deception, gambling, sorcery, foretelling, adultery, fornication, and the practice of wailing, lamenting and showing excessive grief for the dead.

    The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

    "On the Day of Judgment, there will come some people with righteous deeds which are as huge as the Mount of Tuhamah. These righteous deeds would be soon scattered and invalidated. Consequently, those people would be thrown into Hell-fire." The Companions (may Allah be pleased with them) wondered, "0 Messenger of Allah! How would this happen!" He (pbuh) replied, "Those people used to perform Prayer, fast, gives Zakah and offer Hajj, but they used to consume Haram so Allah invalidated their righteous deeds.”[71]

    It is narrated that a righteous man was seen in a vision after his death and was asked about his affair. Thereupon this man explained, "Fine! But I have been prevented from entering Paradise because of a needle which I borrowed in my life and did not give it back to its owner."


    [1] Reported by AI-Bukhari and Muslim

    [2] Reported by At-Tirmidhi.

    [3] Reported by At-Tirmidhi.

    [4] Reported by Muslim.

    [5] Reported by Abu Dawud.

    [6] Reported by A1-Bukhari and Muslim.

    [7] Reported by Al-Bukhari.

    [8] Reported by A1-Bukhari.

    [9] Reported by Abu Dawud.

    [10] Musnad of Imam Ahmad.

    [11] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [12] Reported by A1-Bukhari and Muslim.

    [13] Reported by Al-Bukharl and Muslim

    [14] Reported by Al-Bukhari.

    [15] Reported by Al-Bukhari.

    [16] Reported by Al-Bukhari.

    [17] Reported by A1-Bukhari.

    [18] Reported by At- Tirmidhi.

    [19] Reported by Abu Dawud.

    [20] AI-Ghamus oath is the false oath taken by somebody intentionally to mislead and cheat people. So, it dips him into the Fire. Translator.

    [21] Reported by AI-Bukhari and Muslim.

    [22] Reported by Muslim.

    [23] Reported by Muslim.

    [24] Reported by AI-Bukhari

    [25] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [26] Reported by Muslim

    [27] Reported by Abu Dawud.

    [28] Reported by Ibn Majah.

    [29] Reported by At- Tirmidhi and Abu Dawud.

    [30] Reported by As-Sakhawi in AI-Maqasid AI-Hasanah

    [31] Reported by AI-Bukhari and Muslim.

    [32] Reported by AI-Bukhari and Muslim

    [33] Reported by AI-Bukhari and Ahmad.

    [34] Reported by Muslim.

    [35] Reported by Muslim and At-Tirmidhi.

    [36] Reported by Muslim.

    [37] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [38] Reported in AI-Muqasid AI-Hasanah.

    [39] Reported by Ibn Majah.

    [40] Its source is unknown.


    [41] Reported in At-Targhib wa At-Tarhib

    [42] Musnad of Imam Ahmad.

    [43] Reported in Majma' Al-Zawa'id.

    [44] Reported by A1-Bukhari.

    [45] Reported by Abu Dawud and An-Nasai'.

    [46] Reported by AI-Bukhari and Ibn Majah

    [47] Reported by At -Tirmidhi and Muslim

    [48] Reported in Majam' Al-Zawa'id.

    [49] AI-Du'afa'by AI-Aqili.

    [50] AI-Jami' AI-Azhar.

    [51] AI-Jami' AI-Saghir.

    [52] Reported in Majrna' AI-Zawa'id.

    [53] Reported in At-Targhib waAt-Tarhib.

    [54] Reported by A1-Bukhari and Muslim.


    [55] The collector is the one who collects the taxes from sellers in the market in pre­

    Islamic times. Translator.

    [56] Reported by Abu Dawud

    [57] Reported by Muslim.

    [58] Reported by At-Tirmidhi and is mentioned in Musnad of Imam Ahmad.

    [59] Reported by Al-Asbahani.

    [60] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [61] Reported by Muslim.

    [62] Reported by AI-Asfahani in Al-Targhib.

    [63] Reported by Ahmad in his Musnad.


    [64] Reported by Ibn Hibban.

    [65] Reported by Ahmad in his Musnad

    [66] Reported by Muslim.

    [67] Reported by lbn Hajar Al-Hajthami, Majma' Al-Zwa'id

    [68] Reported by Ahmad.

    [69] Reported by AI- Tabarani

    [70]  Reported by AI-Bukahri.

    [71] Reported by AI-Tabarani.


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