Major Sins

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  • Major Sins

  • 53) Hurting or Reviling Muslims

         Allah, the Almighty said,

    {And those who annoy believing men and women undeservedly, bear (on themselves) a calumny and a glaring sin.}                                                                                                                              (AI-Ahzab: 58)


    {O ye who believe! Let not some men among you laugh at others: it may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): nor let some women laugh at others: it may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): nor defame nor be sarcastic to each other, nor call each other by (offensive) nick names: ill-seeming is a name connecting wickedness, (to be used of one) after he has believed: and those who do not desist are (indeed) doing wrong.}                                                                                                          (AI-Hujurat: 11)

             Allah, the Almighty also said,

    {And spy not on each other, nor speak ill of each other... }                                        (AI-Hujurat: 12)


    The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

    "On the Day of Judgment, the worst status will be for the one whom the people exclude because they fear his evil conduct.” [1]


    The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) also said,

    "O servants of Allah! Allah the Almighty has forbidden oppression against anyone except the one who tale bears about the dignity of his brother. This is the one who committed injustice against himself or destroyed himself.”[2]

    In another hadith, it is reported that,

               "The whole of a Muslim is sanctified for another Muslim with regards to his blood, his property and his honor.”[3]

    The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "The Muslim is the brother of the Muslim. He does not oppress him, hang back from him, coming to his and or belittle him, it is sufficiently wicked for someone to demean his fellow Muslim.”[4]

    He (pbuh) also said,

    "Insulting the Muslim is wickedness and fighting him is un­belief'. On the authority of Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) who said," The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was asked, "O Messenger of Allah, so and so spends her nights praying, and her days fasting, she does so and so and gives in charity but there is something in her tongue that maliciously injures her neighbors. He replied, there is no good in her, she will go to Hell.”[5]

    In another narration, it is reported that,

         "Mention the good deeds of your dead and keep a way from their bad deeds.”[6]


        The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

           "When I was taken up in the ascent (Mi'raj), I passed by people with fingernails of copper who were scratching their       faces and chests with them. I asked who are they, Gabriel?       And he said, "They are those who slandered others (ate people's flesh) and attacked their reputations.”[7]

         Intimidation against instigation amongst the believers, animals and all kinds of beasts: the Prophet (pbuh) is reported to have said,

    "Satan has despaired of ever being worshipped in the land of the Arabs, but he is still hoping to instigate them against each other.”[8]

    Therefore, whoever instigates the sons of Adam against each other and spreads amongst them what causes them harm, he is a tale­ bearer and he is among the people of the Satan who are the worst of creatures.

    The Prophet (pbuh) is reported to have said,

    "Will I tell you about the worst amongst you? The companions replied, 'Yes, Messenger of Allah.' He said,"

    The worst amongst you are the talebearers, who instigate the friends against each other and who seek hardship for the innocent.”[9]

            In an authenticated hadith, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) is reported to have said,

              "The talebearer will never enter Paradise.”[10]

    The talebearer is the one who transfers speech among people or between two friends in a way that harms them or makes their hearts alienated towards each other. He said, such and such said about you so and so and did so and so, unless it will be of a benefit or in his interests such as warning him against an evil which may happen or is expected.

    As for instigating animals, beasts or birds against each other, it is not allowed such as bickering among cocks, bullfights among rams and instigating dogs against each other.

    The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) prohibited such actions and whoever does it, he disobeys Allah and his Messenger. Making the heart of the wife alienated towards her husband, or a servant towards his master, also comes under such evil doing. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) is reported to have said,

    "Whoever instigates the wife against her husband or a slave against his master is a cursed person." We seek refuge in Allah from such doing.”[11]

    Invitation to make reconciliation amongst people Allah, the Almighty said,

    {In most of their secret talks there is no good: but if one exhorts to a deed of charity or goodness or reconciliation between people (secrecy is permissible): to him who does this, seeking the good pleasure of Allah, we shall soon give a reward of the highest (value)}                                                     (An-Nisa': 114)


           Concerning this verse, Mujahid said, "This is general between all people. Allah means that there is no good in secret talks of the people except in acts of goodness and this is what meant by Allah's saying, "But if one exhorts to a deed of charity... " Ibn 'Abbas said, what is meant is that maintaining relations with one's kinship and observing Allah's worship. All charitable acts are called good because they are realized by the mind. "Or a conciliation between people." This is en­couraged by the Messenger of Allah. He (pbuh) said to Abu Ayub Al­-Ansari," Would I lead you to a charity which is better for you than the red camels.' He said, 'Yes, Messenger of Allah.' The Prophet said,

    "Reconcile between people when they are quarreling with each other and bring them near each other when their relationship breaks down (by ceasing relations) with each other.”[12]

           Umm Habibah (may Allah be pleased with her) reported the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) to have said, "All the speech of Adam's sons are counted against them except enjoining good, forbidding evil, or remembering Allah, the Almighty.”[13]

    It is also reported that a man said to Sufyan, what a harsh speech this is! Sufyan said, "Didn't your hear to Allah's saying {In most of their secret talks there is no goods but if one exhorts to a deed of charity or goodness} This is typically applied to such speech.[14]

    Thereafter Allah, the Almighty indicated that these acts will avail only the one who seeks the Pleasure of Allah and He said, "We shall soon give him a reward of the highest (value)" i.e. an endless reward.

    In the hadith, it is reported that,

    "The liar is not the one who reconciles between people, encouraging good or saying something good.”[15]

    Umm Kulthum said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) per­mitting something of what the people say, except in three cases, war, reconciling between people and talks between the man and his wife and vice versa.

    Sahl Ibn Sa'd AI-Sa'idi (may Allah be pleased with him) said that,

              "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was told that there is an enmity between the people of Banu 'Amr Ibn 'Awf Thereupon, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) went out along with some of his companions to reconcile between them.”[16]

           Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) said that, "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said that,

              "Nothing is better than walking to prayer, reconciling between people, or permissible conduct among Muslims.”[17]

           The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said that,

              "Whoever reconciles between two people, Allah will set his affairs in order, will give him with every word he has uttered a reward of freeing a neck slave and he will return having all his previous sins forgiven.”[18]

    54) Harming the Servants of Allah

    Allah the Almighty has said,

    {And those who annoy believing men and women undeservedly, bear (on themselves) a calumny and a glaring sin.}

                                                        (AI-Ahzahb: 58) Allah also said,

              {And lower thy wing to the believers who follow thee.}                                         (Ash-Shu'ara': 216)


            Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

              “Allah said (in a Qudsi hadith), "He who is hostile to a friend of Mine, I declare war against. In another          narration, “ Then I apprise him with a war.”[19]

    In another hadith, it is reported that,

    "Once Abu Sufyan came to Salman, Suhayb and Bilal while they were in gathering with some other people. They said, "By Allah, the swords of Allah did not yet take its right from the enemy of Allah. Abu Bakr (,may Allah be pleased with him) said, "Did you say such words for the sheikh and master of Quraish? He, then came to the Prophet (pbuh) and told him. The Prophet said, "0 Abu Bakr if you anger them, you anger your Lord". Abu Bakr (pbuh) when to them and asked, "0 my brothers! Did I anger you? They replied, "No, may Allah forgive you our brother?” [20]

    Allah, the Almighty said,

    {And keep yourself content with those who call on their Lord, morning and evening, seeking his face.}

                                                                                                                                                          (AI-Kahf: 28)


    This verse was revealed concerning preference of the poor. Its cause of revelation goes as follows: the first to believe in Allah's Prophet (pbuh) were the poor. This is true with respect of every sent Prophet. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) used to set with the poor amongst his companions such as, Salman, Suhayb, Bilal and `Ammar Ibn Yasir (may Allah be pleased with them all). Consequently the polytheists wanted to trap him by driving out the poor for they heard that the first sign of the true Prophet is that he would be followed by the poor. Some polytheists came to the Prophet and said, "O Muhammad, drive the poor out for we disdain to sit with them. If you drive them out, the masters and notable of people will believe in you. Consequently, Allah, the Almighty revealed,

    {Send not away those who call on their Lord, morning and evening, seeking His face.}

                                                                                                                                                 (AI-An'am: 52)


    When the polytheist despaired of Muhammad driving the poor out they said, "a Muhammad, if you will not drive them out, separate between us by making a day for them and another for us. Consequently, Allah the Almighty revealed,


    {And keep yourself COl1tent with those who call on their Lord morning and evening, seeking His face, and let not thine eyes pass beyond them, seeking the pomp and glitter of this life.}                   (Al-Kahf: 28)


    This means that you should keep yourself amongst such kind of people and should not turn your eyes to worldly gain, or worldly attractions.

    {Say, the truth is from your Lord." Let him who will, believe, and let him who will, reject (it).}                 (Al-Kahf: 29)


              Then Allah strikes the sii11ilitude of the rich and the poor saying,

    {Set forth to them the parable of the two men.}

                                                                                          (Al-Khaf: 32)


    {Set forth to them the similitude of the life of this world.}                                                       (Al-Kahf: 45)


    When the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) migrated to Medina, the poor migrated with him and tbey lived in the courtyard of the Mosque of the Prophet. They, in turn were called the people of Sufa (courtyard). Any poor who migrated from Mecca, would join them in Medina until they were of a huge number (may Allah be pleased with them all).


    55) Dragging the Hem Of One's Garment Out of Conceit

    Allah, the Almighty said,

    {Nor walk haughtily through the land: For Allah loveth not any arrogant boaster.}

                                                                                                                                       (Luqman: 18)

    The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "Any part of the caftan of the Muslim below the anklebones is in Hell.”[21]

    He, (pbuh) said,

    "Allah will not look at the one who haughtily drags his gar­ment.”[22]


    The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "There are three people whom Allah will not speak to, look at, or exonerate on the day of judgment, and who will have a painful torment: he who wears the hem of his garment low (out of pride), he who reminds recipients of his charity to them, and he who sells merchandise swearing that he paid more for it than he actually did.”[23]

    In another narration, it is reported that,

    "While a man was walking along in a new set of clothes, with a swagger to his step, pleased with himself and his hair combed down, Allah caused the earth to swallow him and he will keep sinking until the last day.”[24]

    The Prophet (pbuh) is reported to have said,

    "He who, out of pride, drags his garment, Allah will not look at him on the Day of Judgment.”[25]

    The Prophet (pbuh) is also reported to have said,

    "D ragging applies to one's garment, shirt and turban. He who, out of pride, drags any of them, Allah will not look at him on the Day of Judgment.”[26]

            The Prophet (pbuh) is also reported to have said,

    "The caftan of the Muslim comes down to mid calf, there be­ing no harm in what is between this and the ankle bones, though any of it below the ankle bones is in Hell.”[27]

            This judgment applies to all kinds of clothing. So, we ask Allah for safety. Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) said,

             "While a man was praying, dragging his garment on the ground, the Prophet of Allah said to him, "Go and make Wudu' (ablution) again" he went and made ablution and came. The Prophet (pbuh) said, "Go and make Wudu' again.” A man asked, 0 Messenger of Allah, why did you order him to renew his Wudu'? The Prophet (pbuh) kept si­lent for a while, then he said, "He was praying while letting his garment to reach the ground, and Allah does not accept the prayer of such a person.” [28]


    When the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said that,

    "Whoever lets the hem of his garment drag on the ground out of pride, Allah will not look at him", Abu Bakr (may Al­lah be pleased with him) said, "0 Messenger of Allah my garment is always dragging on the ground unless I restrain it. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, "You are not one of those who do it out of pride.”[29]

    56) Men Wearing Silk or Gold

             In the two Sahihs, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) is reported to have said,

    "He who wears silk in this worldly life, will not wear it in the Hereafter.”[30]

    This is a general rule which applies to all classes of people, wheth­er soldiers or otherwise. The Prophet (pbuh) said,

                "Wearing gold and silk has been made unlawful for the men of my community but permissible for its women.” [31]

    On the authority of Huzaifa Ibn AI- Yaman (may Allah be pleased with him) who said,

                "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) made it unlawful for us to drink or eat in the vessel of gold or silver, to wear or set on               silk.” [32]

    Therefore, he who makes wearing silk by men permissible, he is a disbeliever. The Prophet (pbuh) made it lawful only for the one who suffers from a certain disease such as scabies and for the soldiers in time of fighting. As for wearing silk for only ornament by men, it is unanimously prohibited. Whether it is   a hat or a turban. Likewise, if the most of the cloth is silk, it is also unlawful. Wearing gold by men is also unlawful, whether it is a ring or a sheathe of sword. It is unlaw­ful to wear or make it. Once, the Prophet (pbuh) saw a man wearing a ring of gold, took it off from his hand and said,

    "It is an easier act for anyone of you to handle afire brand than to do such thing.”[33]


    Likewise, the embroidery of gold on embellished turban is also un­lawful. As for boys wearing gold and silver, the scholars are in disa­greement. Some of them consider it permissible and some others con­sider it unlawful for the generality of the following saying of the Prophet (pbuh),

               "These two (gold and silk) are unlawful for men of my Ummah, but lawful for its women.”[34]

                    Thus, boys are included in this prohibition. This is also the opinion of Imam Ahmad and other (may Allah be pleased with them)

    57) Fleeing of the Slave

            Muslim reported in his Sahih that, "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

              "When the slave flee away (from his master), his/her prayer will not be accepted.” [35]

    The Prophet (pbuh) is also reported to have said,

    "Any slave that flees away, the pledge of Islam is cleared from him.”[36]

    Ibn Khuzaimah reported in his Sahih from the hadith of Jabir who said, "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

    "There are three people whose prayer will not be accepted, nor will their good deeds be raised up to the sky, a fleeing slave until he returns to his master, a rebellious woman un­til her husband be satisfied with her and a drunkard until his mind is restored. "

    Fudalah Ibn 'Ubaid reported that,

    "There are three people who will be neglected by Allah, a man who severe the community, disobeys his ruler (Imam) and died in such state, a fleeing slave and a woman whose husband is absent and provided her with all her needs, but she unveiled herself after his absence.”[37]


    58) Slaughtering in Other Than Allah's Name

    Such as slaughtering in the name of Satan, an idol, or in the name of a sheikh. Allah, the Almighty has said,

    {Eat not of what the name of Allah has not been mentioned over.}                                      (AI-An'am: 121)


    Concerning this verse, Ibn ' Abbas said, "What is meant is that the dead animals and that which killed by strangling. All these types are included in the verse of AI-Ma'idah (5:3). AI-Kalbi said, what is meant is that over which the name of Allah was not mentioned and that which is slaughtered to other than Allah's name. `Ata' said, "Allah pro­hibited animals which were slaughtered by the people of Quraish for their idols. Allah's saying, {Verily it is disobedience} means that all things which are slaughtered and over which the name of Allah was not mentioned are dead and it is disobedience. {But the Satan ever in­spire their friends to contend with you.} The Satan whispers to his friend to argue falsely with the believer concerning the dead animals Ibn 'Abbas said, the Satan inspired to his friend from human beings saying, how do you worship a thing which you do not eat what he kills, yet you eat what you kill? Consequently, Allah, the Almighty revealed, {If ye were to obey them} i.e. making the dead a lawful thing, {Ye would indeed be pagans.} AI-Zajaj said, this is evidence that he who made what Allah has prohibited lawful or vice versa, is a polytheist.

    It may be asked, how the slaughterings of the Muslim are lawful although he forgot to mention Allah's name and the verse stated the contrary? The answer will be: The interpretations stated that what is meant by "On which Allah's name hath not been mentioned, is the dead animals and not the slaughterings on which the Muslim has for­gotten to mention the name of Allah. There are many things that indi­cated that the verse is concerned with the dead, such as {verily it is an obedience.}Therefore, the one who eats from the slaughtering of the Muslim on which he has forgotten to mention the name of Allah is not a profligate?

    Likewise, {But the Satan ever inspire their friends to contend with you.}. By the consensus of the interpretations, the contention was concerning the dead animals and not of the Muslim. By the same tok­en, {If ye were to obey them, ye would indeed be pagans.}

    Abu Mansour told that, on the authority of Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him). Who said, "A man asked the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) what do you say concerning a man who slaughters but forgets to mention Allah's name? The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "The name of Allah is on the mouth of every Muslim.”[38]

            Abu Mansour also told us on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas that"

    The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "For the Muslim, his name is sufficient and if he forgot to mention Allah's name let him mention it, remember Allah and then eat.”[39]

            `Arnr Ibn Abi ' Amr told us on the authority of `Aishah (may Allah be pleased with both of them) that,

    "Some people said, Messenger of Allah, people bring us a meat but we do not know whether Allah's name was men­tioned over it or not? The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, "Mention Allah's name over it and eat it.” [40]

                It is previously mentioned that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

    "May Allah curse who ever slaughters in other than Allah's name.” [41]


    59) Falsely claiming someone is One's Father

               On the authority of Sa'd, (may Allah be pleased with him) who said, "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

                "Paradise is forbidden to whoever falsely claims someone is his father, knowing he is not.”[42]

                   On the authority of Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) who said,

    "The Prophet (pbuh) said, "Do not wish for fathers other than your own. For someone to wish for a different father is              unbelief.[43]

    In another narration, it is reported,

    "Whoever claims someone, other than his own to be his fa­ther, or belonging himself to a ruler other than his own, he will invoke upon himself the curse of Allah, His angels and all people.” [44]

    On the authority of Abu Dharr who said that, he heard the Prophet (pbuh) as saying,

    "Whoever claims someone to be his father, knowing he is not, he is a disbeliever, whoever claims something which is not his, is not of us and should anticipate his abode in the Fire, and whoever charges a man with unbelief or an enemy of Allah, he will be the one most deserved of it. "


    60) Arguing, Picking Apart Another's Words, and Quarreling

    Allah, the Almighty has said,

    {There is the type of man whose speech about this worldly life may dazzle thee and he calls Allah to witness about what is in his heart, yet he is the most contentious of ene­mies. When he turns his back, his aim everywhere is to spread mischief through the earth and destroy crops and progeny but Allah loveth not mischief}                                                                                                                        (AI-Baqarah: 204-205)


    Imam AI-Ghazali (may Allah have mercy on him) said, " Picking apart another's words consists of attacking another's speech by reveal­ing the mistakes in it, involving no other motive than contempt for the other and displaying one's cleverness. He also said, disputation is what relates to clarifying various legal positions and making a case for them. Concerning arguing, he also said, "Arguing is importunateness in speech to gain one's end, whether monetary or other. It may be ini­tiated by oneself or in response to another.

    An-Nawawi (may Allah have mercy on him) said, "Disputation may be true or false.” Allah, the almighty said,

              {And dispute ye not with the People of the Book, except in the best way.}   

                                                                                                                                               (AI-' Ankabut: 46)


    He, the Almighty also said,

             {And dispute with them in the best way.}                                                                         (An-Nahl: 125)

           He, Most High, also said,

    {None can dispute about the signs of Allah but the unbeliev­ers.}                                             (Ghafir: 4)


           Therefore, when the intention behind disputation is to reveal the truth, then it is recommended. But if it is intended to confront the truth or unknowingly done, then it is unlawful. According to this detail, the texts concerning its permissibility or prohibition were revealed. A cer­tain person remarked, "I have not seen anything that impairs one's re­ligion, diminishes one's respectability, ends one's happiness or preoc­cupies one's heart like arguing.”[45]

    If one objects that a person must argue to obtain his rights, the reply is that as AI-Ghazali (may Allah have mercy on him." The stern condemnation of it applies to those who argue without right or knowledge, such as the deputy of the judge who proceeds in dealing with disputation before knowing justice and on which side it is so he disputes without knowledge.

    Of stern condemnation is the one who demands his right. That is because such a person does not only demand his right, but displays picking apart others' words, lying, harming and assaulting towards his opponent. Or someone who adds abuse to his speech that is necessary to secure his rights, or is motivated to argue by nothing besides an ob­stinate desire to win and to finish his opponent.

    As for someone who has been wronged and makes his case in away compatible with the Sacred Law, without belligerence, excessive­ness, or importunateness, and not intending mere obstinacy and abuse, it is not unlawful, though it is better to avoid it if there is no way to do so, for keeping one's tongue within the limits of fair play during the course of an argument is virtually impossible, Moreover, arguing pro­duces rancor in hearts and causes animosity that can lead to actual ha­tred between two people, until each comes to be pleased when harm befalls the other and to be displeased at the good, and unleashes his tongue against the other's reputation. Whoever argues runs the risk of these calamities. At minimum, a quarrel comes to preoccupy one's heart so that during the prayer one's thoughts turn to debating and ar­guing, and one does not remain, as one should, Disputation is the source of evil as well as arguing and picking a part one's words,

    Therefore, one should not open the door for disputation unless for a necessity.

    On the authority of Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with both of them) who said. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

               "It is enough sinful to be an arguing person.”[46]

    Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) is reported to have said, "Disputation invokes disasters (upon the person). On the authority of Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) who said, "The Mes­senger of Allah (pbuh) said,

    "He who presses for something without knowledge remains under the hatred of Allah until he gives it up.” [47]

    On the authority of Abu Umamah (may Allah be pleased with him) who said, "The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    “No people went astray after having been guided save that they were afflicted with arguing" then he recited, {They did not mention him (Jesus) to you as an example except for ar­gument.}                                                                                                                                         (AI-Zukhruf: 58)”[48]

    The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

    "The things I fear most for my Ummah is a case of "a schol­ar's slip the arguing hypocrite over the Qur'an and the worldly life which cuts your necks off, so accuse it within your hearts.” [49]

    The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "Arguing over the Qur'an is unbelief.”[50]

    61) Withholding Excess Water From Others

    Allah, Most High says,

    {Say, 'See ye? If your stream was lost one morning (in the underground), who then can supply you with clear flowing water?}

             The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "Do not withhold excess water to withhold pasturage.”[51]

    "Whoever denies others his surplus water or pasturage, Allah shall deny him His blessings on the Day of Judgment.”[52]

    "There are three people whom Allah will not speak to, look at, or exonerate on the Day of Judgment, and who will have a painful torment: he who withholds excess water from a traveler in the desert, he who sells merchandise after 'Asr (late afternoon) swearing by Allah that he paid more for it than he actually did, and a man who gives the pledge to a governor only for the sake of this world, and is only loyal if he gets something of this worldly life.”[53]

    Al-Bukhari adds to the above hadith the following,

    "Whoever denies others his surplus water, Allah will say to him, "Today J will deny you my bounty as you did with what you could not create.” [54]


    62) Stinting When Weighing or Measuring Out Goods and Similar


    Allah Most High says,

    {Woe to those that deal in fraud, those who, when they have to receive a measure from men, exact full measure, but when they have to give a measure or weight to men, give less than due. Do not they think that they will be raised upon a Mighty Day, a day when (all) mankind will stand before the Lord of the worlds?}

                                                                                                                                                       (AI-Mutaffifeen: 1-6)

    As-Saddiy said the reason of revelation of the above Ayah traces back to Prophet's arrival at Medina where he found a man called Abu Juhainah who had two scales, one for giving and the other for receiving.

            The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "Five entail five. They asked, what do you mean, Messenger of Allah? He said, II whenever a group of people break a covenant, Allah will entice their enemy to attack them. Whenever, they rule by other than Allah's revelation they will be plagued by poverty. If indecency prevails, they will be afflicted by many deaths. If they cheat when weighing Allah will withhold their pasture-lands (or pasturage) and they will face barren years. If they do not pay Zakat, Allah will deprive them of rain.”


    Malik Ibn Dinar said, once one of my neighbors came to me suf­fering from a deadly disease saying! “Two mountains of fire, two mountains of fire”. “What do you say”, I asked. He said, Abu Yahya, I had two scales, one for giving and the other for receiving. Malik Ibn Dinar, said, I, therefore, crush them with one another. Thereby the man said, the more you crush them, the more suffering I get, Abu Yahya. Afterwards, the man died affected by illness.

    Cheating when weighing or measuring out goods is considered as a type of theft, a breach of faith and consuming other's property through falsehood. Allah promises to punish such people with wail which may be interpreted as a severe torture or a valley in Hell-Fire. This valley is so hot that it can melt all the mountains of the world.

    One of the early Muslims said, I testify that all those who weigh or measure will enter the Hell-fire. This is because; none can measure justly save those whom Allah protects. Another one said, once I visit­ed a sick man suffering from the death trials. Thereby, I began to in­struct him to say the testification of faith, but he could not speak. When he became conscious, I asked him, why did not you repeat the testification of faith? He answered, O brother, the scale's blade was upon my tongue and prevented me to speak. Thereupon, I asked him, did you give short weight? He said, never. But, I used not to wait for a while after weighing to check. Behold! This is the abode of those who do not check their scales. How about those who give short weight.

    Nafi' narrated that Ibn 'Umar who when passing by a seller used to say, “'fear Allah and give just measure or weight.” This is because the cheaters when weighing or measuring will be bridled by sweat up to half of their ears on the Day of Judgment.

    Some of the early Muslims said, woe to those who give short weight to others even a seed less in return for Paradise. Whose width is that of the whole of the heavens and the earth? Woe to those who take over weight from others even a seed over (if the buyer is the one who weights)

    63) Feeling Secure from Allah's Devising

           Allah, Most High says,

    {Until, in the midst of their enjoyment of our gifts, on a sudden We called then to account, when lot They were plunged in despair!}

                                                                                                                      (AI-An'am: 44)

    This means that the punishment occurs suddenly while they are heedless. AI-Hasan said, whoever is blessed but unaware of Allah's decision he is heedless, and whoever is afflicted but unaware of Allah's trials is also heedless. Then he read the above Ayah and said, these people are put into devising as they got all what they need and then taken suddenly.

    'Uqbah Ibn Amir (may Allah please him) related that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

                {Whenever a sinful servant attains whatever he wants you should realize that he is drawn on little by little." Then he reads, "But when they forgot the warning they had received, We opened to them the gates of all (good) things, until in the midst of their enjoyment of our gifts, on a sudden We called them to account, when lot They were plunged in despair.}

                                                                                                                                   (AI-An'am 44)[55]


    It is narrated that,

    "When Iblis (Satan) who was an angel -was devised, Ga­briel and Mika'il burst weeping and Allah asked them, why did you weep? They answered, Lord we cannot feel se­cure from Your devising. Hence, Allah said, "keep on feel­ing in secure from My Devising."

    `Aishah related that the Prophet used to regularly say,

    0 changer of hearts! Make our hearts firm in Thy faith. He was asked, Messenger of Allah! Do you fear (that we may convert) He said, people's hearts are between two fingers of Allah's who changes it whenever He likes. [56]

    "Verily one of you behaves like the people of Paradise until there is but an arm's length between him and it, and that which has been written overtakes him and so he behaves like the people of the Hell-Fire and thus he enters it.”[57]

    "Verily one of you behaves like the people of Hell-fire until there is but an arm's length between him and it, and that which has been written overtakes him and so he behaves like the people of Paradise and thus he enters it. Works are only judged by the end.”[58]

    Once, there was a devout Egyptian man who went regularly to the mosque to perform the call to prayer and to perform the prayer him­self. One day, he ascended the minaret to call to prayer as usual. The minaret was juxtaposed to a house belonging to a Christian man.­

    When he cast a glance into the house he saw a very beautiful woman. He was so fascinated that he neglected the call to prayer and went to her. The woman asked him, what do you want? He said, nothing but you.

    She said, "I could not do any indecency." He said, "What about marriage?" She replied, "But you are a Muslim and my father will re­ject you." He said, "1 '11 convert to Christianity." In doing so, I'll marry you, she replied. Accordingly, be converted to Christianity to marry her. No sooner did he marry her than he fell down from the floor, where he was supposed to do something and died. Alas, neither did he remain a believer nor did he enjoy the woman.

              Salim Ibn Abdullah related that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) would frequently swear by saying,

                "No, by the changer of the hearts.”[59]

    This means that Allah changes one's heart faster than the wind but in different way! Agreement, disagreement, willingness and hatred etc. Allah says,

    {And know that Allah cometh in between a man and his heart, and that it is He to whom ye shall (all) be gath­ered}                                                                                                                        (AI-Anfal: 24)


                    Mujahid comments that Allah comes in between one's mind and his own hand as stated in Allah's saying,

                 {Verily in this is a message for any that has a heart and understanding or who gives ear and is a witness.}                                                                                                                                               (Qaf: 37)


    i.e. he who has mind. `Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) related that the Prophet (pbuh) would always say,

    "0 Changer of hearts! Make my heart firm in thy faith. I asked, Messenger of Allah, I think that you make this sup­plication much! Do you fear? He said, how could I be se­cure while the people's hearts are between the two fingers of Allah, Who changes it whenever He likes. Thus, if He wants to change one's heart, He does."

    Therefore, you should not be deluded by your own faith, prayer, fasting or whatever you do of acts of worship. This is because all of these works refer to Allah's will and his plentiful bounties and He can strip you of such blessings.


    64) Despairing of the Mercy of Allah and Losing of Hope

    Allah Most High says,

    }And never give up hope of Allah's soothing mercy: truly no one despairs of Allah's soothing mercy, except those who have no faith. }                                                                                                              (Yusuf: 87)


                {He is the one that sends down rain (even) after (men) have given up all hope.}        (Ash-Shura: 28)


    {Say, 'O my servants who have transgressed against their souls! Despair not of the mercy of Allah).}

                                                                                                                                                             (AzZummar: 53)

    The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "Let none of you die except thinking the best of Allah the Al­mighty.”[60]

    Allah, unless you love forgiveness, none of the sinful men will be delayed. O Allah, you are the Ever-Forgiver, the Ever Generous and love forgiveness: may you forgive me. O Allah look at us tenderly

    and include us amongst the people of purity not those of wretched­ness.

    O Allah! Help us to achieve our hopes, make us prosperous, grant us your pleasure, guide us to goodness and give us a good deed in this world, a good deed in the next and keep us away of the Hell-Fire.


    65) Forgoing the Congregational Prayer to Pray Alone Without a Legal Excuse

    `Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud related that the Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "I have considered having a man lead people at prayer and going myself to those who stay back from attending the con­gregational prayer to bum their houses down upon them..”

    "If the people forgo the Friday Prayer, Allah will set a seal on their hearts for them to become heedless.”[61]

    "Whoever misses three Friday prayers without a legal ex­cuse, Allah will set a seal on his heart.”[62]

    "Whoever misses the Friday prayer without a (legal) excuse or a danger will be accounted amongst the hypocrites in a record that cannot be erased or altered.”[63]

    Hafsa (may Allah be pleased with her) related, the Prophet (pbuh) said,


    "Going to the Friday prayer is obligatory for every male who has reached puberty.”[64]


    66) Constantly Missing the Friday and Congregational Prayer Without a Valid Excuse

    Allah Most High says,

    {The Day that the shin shall be laid bare, and they shall be summoned to prostrate, but they shall not be able. Their eyes will be cast down--ignomity will cover them, seeing that they had been summoned aforetime to bow in adora­tion, while they were whole, (and had refused).}                       (Al-Qalam: 42-43)


    Ka'b Al-Ahbar said, this Ayah is only revealed concerning those who miss the congregational prayers. Sa'id Ibn Al-Musayyib (may Al­lah have mercy on him) said, "Those people heard the call to prayer and did not respond while they were whole."

    The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "By Him in Whose Hands is my soul, I have considered having wood gathered when the call to prayer is made and going myself to those who stay back from attending the congrega­tional prayer to burn their houses down upon them. "

            In the aforementioned Ayah and hadith there is a severe warning waiting for those who miss the congregational prayer without excuse.

            Ibn ' Abbas related that the Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "Whoever hears the caller to prayer and does not have a valid excuse that withholds him from responding. Someone asked what is an excuse, Messenger of Allah? He said. "Fear or sickness," will not have his prayer accepted i.e., the prayer, which he performed at home.

    At-Tirmidhi related on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them) who was asked about a man who spends the day fasting and the night praying but he does not pray in a congregation. Ibn `Abbas answered, if he dies adhering to that, he will enter the Hell fire. "

    Once, a blind man came to the Prophet (pbuh) and submitted,

    "0 Messenger of Allah, I have nobody to lead me to mosque, do I have a dispension to pray at home? Then the Prophet per­mitted him. But when he was going back the Prophet called him and asked, do you hear the call to prayer? The man re­plied, yes. "Therefore respond to it.” the Prophet said.”

    The same hadith is reported by Abu Dawud as follows: Ibn Umm Maktum came to the Prophet (pbuh) and said,

    "0 Messenger of Allah, there are large number of reptiles and beasts in Medina and I am blind, do I have a dispen­sion to pray at home? Then the Prophet (pbuh) said, do you hear the words of the call to prayer (haiyaala salah, haiy­aala salah). He said, yes."

            The Prophet said, then you have to respond to. Another narration states that,

    "0 Messenger of Allah, I am a blind man and live far away from the mosque and love an inconvenient guide, do I have dispension? "Whoever hears the call to prayer and no ex­cuse withholds him to respond will not have his prayer ac­cepted. They asked, Messenger of Allah, what is an ex­cuse? He said, fear or sickness. "

              "May Allah curse three people: he who leads a group of                 people who hate him, a woman who spends a night angry with her husband, and a man who hears the call to prayer and does not answer. "

            Abu Hurairah said, it is better for one's ears to be filled with molten lead than to hear the call to prayer and not answer it."

    Ali Ibn Abi Talib (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "The prayers performed by a neighbor of a mosque are not accepted except in the mosque." Someone asked, who is a neighbor of a mosque? He re­plied, he who hears the call to prayer." Ali also said, whoever hears the call to prayer and does not respond his prayer will not go further than his head except if he has an excuse."

    Ibn Mas'ud (may Allah be pleased with him said, whoever likes to meet Allah as a Muslim should keep on performing the five prayers when the call to them is issued. This is because, Allah has given your Prophet the traditions of guidance (Sunna) and they (the five prayers) belong to such traditions. If you pray at home as does the one who re­misses the prayer, then you neglect the Prophet's Sunna. If you neglect the Prophet's Sunna you will be astray. Verily, none of us would miss the congregational prayer but a well-known hypocrite or a sick man. I remember that a man would be brought leaning on two men and put in the raw to attain its reward and escape the sins of missing it."

    Performing prayers in congregation is so great as mentioned in Qur'an Allah most high says,

    {Before this We wrote in the psalms, after the message giv­en to Moses): "My servants the righteous, shall inherit the earth.}                                                                                                               (AI-Anbiya': 105)


    The exegetes said that the righteous servants are those who per­form the five prayers in congregation. In explaining Allah's statement,

              {And we record that which they leave behind.}                                                                 (Yasin: 12)


    The exegetes said, "What they leave behind" means then steps.

    The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "Whoever purifies himself (makes his ablution) at home and then goes to one of the houses of Allah (mosque) to dis­charge his duty to Allah (to offer obligatory prayers) his one step towards a mosque wipes out a sin and another step rises his status". If he continues sitting on prayer -carpet, after prayer is over, and he remains with ablutions, the an­gels beseech Allah for his blessings upon him and pray. /' Allah! Forgive him! Allah have mercy on him.” [65]

    "May I tell you something thereby, Allah will remit your sins, and thereby your position will be raised. The compan­ions said, "Do tell us 'O Messenger of Allah! He said, "Per­forming the ablution properly, going to the mosque fre­quently for prayers even in difficult and distressing circumstances and waiting for the next prayer after one is over. This is your Jihad in the cause of Allah.”[66]

    67) Bringing Loss to the Bequest

    Allah Most High, says,

    {After payment of legacies and debts: so that no loss is caused (to any).}                                 (An-Nisa': 12)

           This means that when someone brings loss to heirs by claiming that he is indebted to such and such. Allah the Almighty says,

    {Thus is it ordained by Allah, and Allah is All-Knowing, Most Forbearing. Those are limits set by Allah: those who obey Allah and his Messenger will be admitted to gardens with rivers flowing beneath, to abide therein (forever) and that will be the supreme achievement. But those who dis­obey Allah and his Messenger and transgress his limits will be admitted to a fire, to abide therein: and they shall have a humiliating punishment.}                                                                                                                  (An-Nisa': 12-14)

    The reward and the punishment mentioned in the aforemen­tioned Ayat concerns those who deal with the inheritance. Abu Hurairah related that Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "A man or a woman work abiding by Allah's command­ments for sixty years until the death comes to them. Then they bring loss to the bequest and thereby they enter the hellfire". Then Abu Hurairah reads, Allah's saying: {After payment of legacies and debts: so that no loss is caused (to any one)}" [67]

    "Whoever prevents his heirs from receiving their inheri­tance, Allah will prevent his inheriting Paradise.”[68]

    "Allah has given every one his right. Thus there is no be­quest for an heir.” [69]

    68) Deception and Evil Schemes

         Allah, Most High say,

    {But the plotting of evil will hem in only the authors thereof}                                                  (Fatir: 43)


    The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "Plotting and duplicity are in the Hell-Fire.”[70]

    "A deceiver, a miser and he who reminds recipients of his charity to them will not enter paradise.”

    Allah the Almighty says about the hypocrites:

    {They seek to deceive Allah, but it is Allah who deceive them.}                              (An-Nisa: 142)


    Al-Wahidi said, "They will be treated in the manner they treated others: they will be shown the light as the believers but when they ap­proach the Sirat (a bridge on fire) the light diminishes and they will be left in darkness.

    The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "The people of Hell-Fire are five" and mentioned a man who dis­affects one's wife or property from him day and night.”[71]


    69) Spying on the Muslims and Revealing their Weaknesses

    Included in this subject is the hadith of Hatib Ibn Abi Balta’ah (1) (who sent a secret letter telling of the Muslims military plans to his relatives in Mecca in hopes that they would not get hurt), 'Umar (Al­lah be well pleased with him) wanted to kill him for what he had done, but the Prophet (pbuh) forbade 'Umar to, as Hatib had fought at Badr (and by accepting Hatib's excuse, left nothing for any Muslim to criti­cize.[72]

    If someone's spying entails undermining Islam and its people, or the killing of captives, enslavement, or plundering of the Muslims, or anything of the like, then he is one of those who strive for corruption in the land, destroying tillage and offspring, and he is subject to death, and deserves the torment (of Hell-Fire), may Allah save us from it, Anyone who spies necessarily knows that if ordinary talebearing is a major sin, spy's carrying information is far more abominable and hei­nous, May Allah save us from that for He is the Ever-Clement?

    70) Disparaging the Companions of the Prophet

        The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "Allah most high says: he who is hostile to a friend (Waliyy) of Mine, I declare war against"

    "Do not revile my companions, for by Him in Whose Hand is my soul, were one of you to spend gold equal to mount Uhud, you would not attain the reward of the handful of one of them or even half of it.”[73]

    (Because what they spent benefited Islam more)

    "Allah! Allah! (Keep the thought of Allah) concerning my companions. "Do not take them as a target" (for your ob­scenity or charges) after me, He who loves them, loves me but he who hate them, hates Me, and he who offends them, offends me and in turn offends Allah and he who offends Al­lah, Allah almost takes him”[74]

    "The sign of faith is love of the helpers (Ansar), and the sign of hypocrisy is hatred of the helpers.”[75]

    This is because they were the first believers who fought the ene­mies of Islam fiercely at the lifetime of the Prophet (pbuh). Likewise, the love of Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) is of faith and the ha­tred of him is hypocrisy"

    The excellence of the Prophet's companions can be recognized by studying their biography and their traces during the Prophet's lifetime and thereafter. This excellence is represented in their sincere faith, fighting against the disbelievers, disseminating the belief, declaring the Islamic rites, raising high the word of Allah and His Messenger and teaching others the obligatory and Sunna worshiping. Were not they, we would not receive anything concerning the religion. Hence, whoever disparages them is beyond the pale of Islam.

    Such disparaging is undoubtedly out of the belief that they were wicked people and thus denying the sayings of Allah and His Messen­ger when praising them and indicating their virtues. They are also the intermediaries between the source and the target of sacred knowledge. Doubting the intermediary necessarily affects the source.

    The Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "Allah has selected me and picked out my companions. From among my Companions, I have ministers, helpers, and rela­tives by marriage. Thereby, whoever disparages them entails the curse of Allah, His angels and all the people. Allah will not accept their deeds on the Day of Judgment.”[76]

            Anas Ibn Malik (may Allah be pleased with him) related, once the     Prophetic Companions said,

            "The curse of Allah the angels and the whole people is upon  whoever reviles my companions.” [77]


    "Allah has selected me and picked out my companions. He also granted me friends, brothers and relatives by marriage. There will be another generation thereafter who will revile and disparage them. Therefore, you should not inter­act with them in food, drink marriage, prayer over them or prayer with them.” [78]


    Ibn Mas'ud (may Allah be pleased with him) related that the Prophet (pbuh) said,

    "Hold your tongue whenever you hear the mentioning of my Companions, stars and destiny.”[79]

    Scholars argued that, holding one's tongue is a sign of complete submission to Allah.

    It is obligatory for a Muslim to love Allah and his Messenger. Of the Prophet's love is to love all what He was sent with, those who take after him, those who apply his tradition and guidance, household, companions, wives, progeny, servants, and to love whoever loves them and hate whoever hates them.

    Abu Ayyub As-Sakhtiyyani (may Allah be pleased with him) said, whoever loves Abu Bakr raises the minaret of the religion higher, whoever loves 'Umar clarifies the way, whoever loves 'Uthman, is en­lightened by Allah's light, whoever loves Ali adheres to the clearest principle and whoever says, the Prophet's companions are good and right is free from hypocrisy.


    As for the virtues of the Prophetic companions, they are countless. The best of the companions are the ten whom the Prophet promised to enter paradise. The best four of them are Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthman and' Ali (may Allah be pleased with them all). Whoever doubts them, is a hypocrite.

    In the hadith narrated by AI-'Irbad Ibn Sariyyah, the Prophet said,

    "You must follow my deeds (Sunna) and that of the rightly guided caliphs. Hold it and stick fast to it. Avoid novelties (in religious matters), for every novelty is an innovation and every innovation is an error and every error is in hell.” [80]

    The Rightly-Guided Caliphs are: Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthman and , Ali. The former was mentioned in the Qur'an several times.

    "Let not those among you who are endued with grace and amplitude of means resolve by oath against helping their kinsmen, those in want, and those who have left their homes in Allah's cause"

                                                                                                                                                        (An-Nur: 22)


              { Being the second of the two, they two were in the care.}                                          (At- Tawbah: 40)


    {And he who brings the truth and who confirms (and sup­ports) it.}                                   (Az-Zummar: 33)      




    [1] Reported by A1-Bukhari.

    [2] Reported by Ibn Majah.

    [3] Reported by Muslim.

    [4] Reported by Al-Bukhari

    [5] It is previously mentioned.

    [6] Reported by Al-Hakim in Al-Mustadrak

    [7] Reported by Abu Dawud.

    [8] Reported by AI-Baihaqi in Shu'ab AI-Iman.

    [9] Reported by AI-Bukhari in AI-Adab AI-Mufrad.

    [10] It is previously mentioned.

    [11] Reported by Abu Dawud.

    [12] Reported by Al-Haithami in Majma' Al-Zawa'id.

    [13] Reported by At- Tirmidhi.

    [14] Reported by Al-Bukhari.

    [15] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [16] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [17] Reported by AI-Asbahani in At-Targhib wa At-TarhzD. ­

    [18] Reported by Al-Asbahani in At-Targhib waAt-Tarhib.


    [19] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [20] Reported by Muslim.

    [21] It is previously mentioned.

    [22] Reported by AI-Baihaqi in Shu'ab Al-Iman.

    [23] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [24] It is previously mentioned.

    [25] It is previously mentioned.

    [26] It is previously mentioned.

    [27] Reported by Abu Dawud.

    [28] Reported by Abu Dawud

    [29] Reported by Abu Dawud.


    [30] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [31] Reported by At-Tirmidhi.

    [32] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [33] Reported by Muslim.

    [34] Reported by Abu Dawud.

    [35] Reported by Muslim.

    [36] Reported by Muslim.

    [37] It is previously mentioned.

    [38] Reported by A1-Haithami in Majma' Az-Zawa'id

    [39] Reported by Ad-Darqutni in As-Sunnan.

    [40] Reported by A1-Bukhari.

    [41] It is previously mentioned.


    [42] Reported by A1-Bukhari.

    [43] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [44] Reported by Muslim.


    [45] Reported by Ibn Abi Ad-Dunya concerning the matter of silence.

    [46] Reported by At-Timidhi.

    [47] Reported by Al-Asbahani in At-Targhib wa At-TarhID.

    [48] Reported by At-Timidhi.

    [49] Reported by Ibn Hajar in Majma' Az-Zawa'id

    [50] Reported by Abu Dawud.

    [51] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [52] Reported by Ahmad.

    [53] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [54] Reported by AI-Bukhari.

    [55] Reported by Ahmad and AI-Baihaqi.

    [56] Reported by Ibn Majah, AI-Hakim, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Hibban.

    [57] A part of a hadith is reported by A1-Bukhari.

    [58] Reported by A1-Bukhari, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and Ahmad.

    [59] Reported by Muslim, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah and Ahmad.

    [60] Reported by Muslim.

    [61]  Reported by Muslim.

    [62] Reported by Abu Dawud and At- Tirmidhi

    [63] Reported by Ahmad.

    [64] Repoted by Abu Dawud

    [65] Reported by Muslim.

    [66] Reported by Muslim.

    [67] Reported by Abu Dawud and At- Tirmidhi.

    [68] Reported by Ibn Majah.

    [69] Reported by Ibn Majah, At- Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud and Ahmad.

    [70] Reported by Ai-Hakim and A1-Baihaqi.

    [71] Reported by Muslim.

    [72] This story ismantioned in the Sahih of AI-Bukhri.

    [73] Reported by AI-Bukhari and Muslim.

    [74] Reported by At- Tirmidhi.

    [75] 3. Repoted by AI-Bukhari and Muslim.

    [76] Reported by Ibn Hajar AI-Haithami in Majma' Al-Zawa'id.

    [77] Reported by Ibn Hajar AI-Haithami in Majma' Al-Zawa'id.

    [78] Ash-Shawkani attributed it to Aqily in Durr As-Sahabah and said it is a weak ha­dith.

    [79] As-Suyuti attributed it to At- Tabarani in Jami' Al-Adhkar.

    [80] Reported by Abu Dawud.

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