A program Of Studies For new Muslims

  • bookcover

  • A program Of Studies For new Muslims

  • PART I




    1. Introduction

    1.1 Explanation of the words: Islam, Muslim, Allah, al-      Qur'an, SunnahIslam is not Muhammadanism; why not?

    1.2 Map of the Muslim world; Muslim majorities and minorities.

    1.3 Muslims in North America; organizations and centers.


    1. Islam as a Message

    2.1 Islam as a message from God to man. The content of the message. The messengers.

    2.2 The need for messengers. The last prophet and messenger of God was Muhammad.

    2.3 Aspects of the message: (1) faith, and (2) Shari'ah or way of life.


    1. Islamic Faith

    3.1 Al- 'Aqa'id (the beliefs). The significance of the belief in the oneness of God, in the unity of His message, and of the belief in the Hereafter.

    3.2 Belief-systems of other religions as compared to Islamic beliefs.

    3.3 Man's place in the world: vice-gerent of God on earth;         born innocent; spiritually and morally responsible for his beliefs and actions.

    3.4 Islamic world-view: oneness of God implies unity of    nature, unity of mankind, unity of all knowledge, unity of man's personality, and uniformity of criteria for judgement.


    1. Islamic Way of Life

    4.1 The basis of the Islamic way of life, the Shari'ahThe fixed principles and the flexible aspects of the Shari'ah.

    4.2 The three classifications: (1) beliefs, (2) worship, (3) human affairs.

    4.3 A description of the "five pillars" of Islam and their significance. No asceticism. A balanced way of life.

    4.4 Personal character. Interpersonal relationships. Emphasis on cooperation rather than competition. Rights and obligations.

    4.5 Permissible and forbidden acts and things.

    4.6 Social, economic and administrative principles.

    4.7 The dynamic principles: taqwa, amr bi al-m'aruf and nehi 'an al-munkar, and jihad fi sabil Allah.

    1. Islam in History

    5.1 Islam is not an unattainable ideal, nor meant only for a few exceptional persons. Islam's actualization in history.

    5.2 The spread of Islam through preaching and conquest. No compulsion in religion but the laws of God must prevail.

    5.3 Islam's humanizing effects on concepts, morals, manners, human rights and responsibilities, law and order, justice, warfare, role of women, slavery and international relationships.

    5.4 Seeking knowledge is an obligation on Muslims. Muslims' love of learning and research. Origination of scientific method. Contributions to science, medicine, trade and commerce, travel, arts and crafts, architecture and engineering, and understanding among people.


    1. Islam in the Contemporary World

    6.1 Islamic movements in the Arab countries, Turkey, Iran,        Pakistan, Indonesia and Africa.

    6.2 External conflicts: Philippines, Kashmir, Palestine, Eritrea, Chad, U.S.S.R., China, Eastern Europe.

     6.3 Islam in America.

    6.4 Islam versus capitalism, communism, nationalism,      secularism and other “isms.” Islam is not a product or a reaction to some socio-political condition or previous religious heritage, but its source is outside of this world, God Himself.






    1. Tauhid(Oneness of God)

    1.1 Allah is the Creator of everything. He is One and Unique. He is not like any of His creatures. He has no spouse, no offspring and no partner.

    1.2 The division of the Attributes of Allah: (1) concerning His being (Living, Eternal, etc., and (2) in relation to His creatures (Provider, Merciful, Knowing, etc.).

    1.3 The meaning of "La ilaha illa Allah." Ilah, one who is worshipped and obeyed.

    1.4 Tauhid as a conceptual imperative: Oneness of the Creator implies unity of nature (universe and not a multi­ verse), unity of mankind, unity of religion, unity of knowledge, and uniformity of criteria of judging people here and in the Hereafter.

    1.5 Tauhid as a psychological imperative: to purify our concept of God; to eliminate all forms of open and hidden shirk (association of others with God); Freedom from fear of death, poverty, dishonor; reliance on Allah; remembrance of Allah.

    1.6 Tauhid as a social imperative: compassion toward Allah's creatures, animals as well as humans; unity of mankind; brotherhood of believers; uniform justice; establishment of Allah's commandments (awamir); jihad.


    1. Angels

    2.1 The nature and functions of angels. Jibril, and his role in revelation. Munkir and Nakir.

    2.2 Existence of jinns and shay tans.


    1. Scriptures

    3.1 The earlier scriptures and their role in history. Their present form and lack of authenticity.

    3.2 Purity and authenticity of the Qur'an.

    3.3 The Qur'an as the abrogation of all previously revealed scriptures.


    1. Messengers

    4.1 Need for messengers. Allah's promise to send guidance to mankind. Is sending of messengers an interference in natural processes?

    4.2 Messengers are chosen by Allah, no one can attain prophethood through effort or choice.

    4.3 Wahy and its various meanings occurring in the Qur'an Wahy sent to prophets and Messengers.

    4.4 Meaning of "Muhammadar Rasul Allah." Muhammad's          sunnah as an example to follow. Obedience to Muhammad is obedience to Allah.

    4.5 Muhammad is the "Seal of the Prophets." Later          claimants to prophethood or messengership are necessarily false. The cessation of wahy.

    4.6 The names of messengers mentioned in the Qur'an.


    1. Life-Hereafter

    5.1 Human soul is an 'amr of Allah. 5.2 The Day of Judgement. The Book of Accounts. The Balance.

    5.3 Jannah and Jahannam (their reality, their duration).

    5.4 Superiority of the life in the Hereafter over the present life.

    5.5 What kind of people will deserve Jannah and what kind Jahannam.

    5.6 The resurrection of the body.


    1. Qadr

    6.1 Meaning of the word "qadr"

    6.2 Early controversy about its meaning and significance.

     6.3 True meaning of this belief.


    1. Nature ofKufr

    7.1 The various meanings of 'Kufr' occurring in the Qur'an. Who is a kafirmunafiqmushrika sinner?

    7.2 Avoidance of shirk, Kufr and major sins. Abstaining from calling a professing Muslim a kafir.


    1. Nature of Islam,Iman and Ihsan

    8.1 The Quranic meaning of Islam.

    8.2 The definition and role of Iman. Is every Muslim a mu'min.

    8.3 The Quranic meaning of Ihsan.






    1. Introduction

    1.1 The meaning of the words rasul (messenger) and nabi (prophet).

    1.2 The Prophets mentioned in the Qur'an.

    1.3 The various ways Divine revelation came to man.

    1.4 The characteristics of prophets.

    1.5 The role of prophets in history.


    1. Ibrahim

    2.1 Early life.

    2.2 Isma'il and the ordeal of sacrifice. The building of the K'abahThe birth of Ishaq.

    2.3 Ibrahim's character and preaching.


    1. Musa

    3.1 Historical background.

    3.2 Early life.

    3.3 Call to messengership.

    3.4 Life in the wilderness.

    3.5 Problems in the Torah.


    1. 'Isa

    4.1 Historical background.

    4.2 Early life.

    4.3 The prophethood if 'Isa.

    4.4 Problems of the New Testament Gospels.

    4.5 What was the nature of 'Isa's teachings?


    1. Yusuf

    5.1 Early life, The dream.

    5.2 Life in Egypt. Temptation, imprisonment, establishment.

    5.3 His encounter with his brothers.

    5.4 His teachings.

















    1. Introduction

    1.1 The concept of 'ibadah in Islam. The purpose of man's life is the worship of Allah. Worship of Allah frees man from worship of others and of self.

    1.2 Elements of worship: cleansing, intention, observing the form and order prescribed by the Prophet. Attitudes: humility, sincerity and concentration.

    1.3 Obligatory worships: Salat, Sawm, Zakat and Hajj'. Conditions rendering them obligatory: Islam, puberty, possession of senses, power and ability.

    1.4 Other forms of worship: dhikrreading of the Qur'an, tawbah, istighfar, supplication, teaching and learning of Islamic knowledge, meditation.


    1. Taharah

    2.1 Shar'i meaning of taharah and najasah. Kinds of najasah and how to cleanse 'najasah from body and from clothing.

    2.2 WuduElements of wuduWhat nullifies wudu and what does not. For what purposes it is necessary: for Salatfor touching the Arabic Qur'an, for tawaf of K'abah.

    2.3 GhuslElements of ghuslWhen ghusl is necessary:    janabah, menstruation, post-partum flow.

    2.4 What is haram when janab: Salat, touching the Arabic Qur'an, reading the Qur'an, going into a masjid, tawaf What is haram during menstruation or post-partum bleeding: the above, as well as fasting and sexual Intercourse.

    2.5 Sunnah ghusl, and recommended (mustahab).

    2.6 Masah and tayammumWhen they are permissible and how they are done. What nullifies masahWhat nullifies tayammum.

    2.7 How dururah (necessity or compulsion) cancels obligations.


    1. Salat

    3.1 The importance of SalatOn whom Salat is obligatory. The times and the forms of Salat from the Qur'an and SunnahWhy prayers must be performed in Arabic.

    3.2 Kinds of prayers: Fard, Sunnah ,nafil. Individual and    collective Janazah.

    3.3 Conditions for the soundness of Salat: wudu or          tayammum, covering of 'awrah, clean place, facing qiblahintention.

    3.5 Elements of Salat: Fard elements, sunnah elements,  recommended parts.

    3.6 Detailed description of performing Salat (illustrated by pictures or slides). Loud and silent parts. Sujud for      forgetting some parts.

    3.7 What extraneous actions are permissible during Salat e.g., crying with fear of Allah, picking up an infant. What acts are disapproved, and what acts nullify Salat.

    3.8 Collective prayers. Imam and followers. Adhan, iqamah, straightening of lines, following the imam and never preceding him. How to join an already started prayer and how to complete it. Women's attending collective prayers, their rows, children's rows. A woman can lead a congregation of women only.

    3.9 Friday prayers: ghusltime of prayers, rak'ats. Khutbah, manner of listening. 'Eid prayers: ghusl, takbirs, form, khutbah.

    3.10 Prayers on special occasions. When entering the masjid mid-morning, late night, during the nights of Ramadan, and funeral prayers.

    3.11 Shortening of prayers. Conditions. A traveler following a resident imam, a resident following a traveler. Combining prayers.

    3.12 Missed prayers. Keeping order in making up missed prayers.

    3.13 Form of prayer during sickness or during travel in a   public conveyance.

    3.14 The importance of the masjidManners in a masjid. I'tikaf

    3.15 Supplication.


    1. Siyam

    4.1 Meaning of fasting; kinds of fasting; prohibited days.

    4.2 Islamic calendar, Ramadan; Lailat al-Qadr; the Battle of Badr.

    4.3 Elements of fasting: what is permissible and what is prohibited while fasting; suhoor,' if tar,

    4.4 Exemption from fasting; penalty for breaking fast.

    4.5 Tarawih prayers,

    4.6 'Eid al-fitr,

    4.7 Nafil fasting and kaffarah fasting.


    1. Zakat

    5.1 Meaning of Zakat and its importance; Salat and Zakatand Abu Bakr's action.

    5.2 The spirit of Zakatthe Islamic attitude toward money and possessions.

    5.3 The benefits of Zakatto the giver, to the recipient, to the society.

    5.4 Kinds of property on which Zakat is obligatory and the rates. Cattle, sheep, goats, camels, gold, silver, goods of trade, minerals, agricultural products and fruits.

    5.5 Conditions which make Zakat obligatory: nisabbeing free of debts, one year's passing, savings and not Income.

    5.6 Recipients of Zakat.

    5.7 Regulations concerning Zakat. Sadaqah (charity); Zakat al-fitr


    1. Hajj'

    6.1 The meaning of Hajj'.

    6.2 The significance of Hajj': Ibrahim and Isma'il; the brotherhood of Muslims; remembrance of the Day of  Judgment.

    6.3 The conditions under which Hajj' is obligatory; the conditions for the correctness of Hajj',

    6.4 Makkah; K'abah.

    6.5 Elements of Hajj: ihram, its place, what is forbidden during ihram, use of perfume, hair oil, combing hair, etc.; tawf,' sa'i; 'Arafat; Muzdalifah and Mina; stoning the jamaratsacrifice.

    6.6 'Umrah and the conditions for 'Umrah,' elements of    'umrah; fard, sunnah and mustahab parts of 'Umrah,

    6.7 Hajj qiran, tamatt'u and single Hajj'.

    6.8 Sacrificial animal, kinds of animals; place and time of   sacrifice; method of sacrifice; recommended and reprehensible things concerning sacrifice.

    6.9 Ziyarah of al-Madina and the Masjid al-Nabawi; what is        permissible and what is reprehensible. Ziyarah to Jerusalem.

    6.10 Practical suggestions: travel arrangements, visa, mutawwafmoney.


    1. Other Forms of Worship

    7.1 Reading the Qur'an: wudureading without understand­ing; reading with understanding; reading the Qur'an during Ramadan; at other occasions.

    7.2 Dhikrafter each prayer; at various occasions. The pronouncement of Bismillah upon beginning. Insha'Allah, Alhamdulillah, jazak Allah, masha 'Allah, etc.

    The merits of Dhikr.

    7.3 D'ua and istighfarAsking God for everything: forgiveness, patience, strength, guidance, knowledge, health, wealth, children. Conditions of d'ua,. sincerity, humility, good intentions. Prophet's d'uas.

    7.4 Medication (muraqibah). Objects of meditation: creation, self, death, Day of Judgment, Life Hereafter, one's past life, self-evaluation, attributes of Allah.

    7.5 Teaching and learning. Understanding religious teach­ings, halaqah for study 9f the Qur'an, Hadith, Fiqh and Dhikr.

    7.6 IhsanConstant awareness of Allah's presence.




    1. Salutation

    1.1 Words of salutation and responses; their meanings; the       blessings of salutation.

    1.2 Who should be first in saluting whom; shaking hands; standing up for respect.

    1.3 Who should not be saluted and why.


    1. Personal Habits

    2.1 Cleanliness; washing, wudu, ghusl, use of perfume.

    Cleansing after use of toilet.

    2.2 Hair: hair dressing; artificial hair; dyeing hair; moustache and beard. Removal of body hair. 2.3 Nails: cutting of nails, use of nail polish.

    2.4 Disapproved practices: whistling, clapping, sitting in     public with legs apart, yelling, loud laughter, winking, shaking hands with or touching women.

    2.5 Sneezing and yawning.


    1. Exclamations

    3.1 The meaning of the phrases Bismillah, Alhamdulillah, insha 'Allan, subhanAllah, mashaAllah, jazakAllah, yarhamakAllah, Allahu Akbar, la hawla wa la quwwata ilia Billah. Disapproval of saying" Wallahor "Billah"


    1. Manners of Eating and Drinking

    4.1 Food which is permissible and acquired lawfully.

    4.2 Saying' 'Bismillah;" eating with right hand; feeling happiness; ending with Alhamdulillahthe blessing of company in eating.

    4.3 Manner of eating; plates and utensils (silver, gold); eating together.

    4.4 Hospitality; manners of hosts and guests.

    4.5 Moderation in eating habits.

    4.6 Drinking in three swallows; what drinks are haram


    1. Bathroom Manners

    5.1 Privacy; cleanliness; concept of najasahwearing shoes or slippers; entering with left foot and leaving with right; d'uas


    1. Clothing

    6.1 'Awrah for men and women; what may be worn by women in the presence of others; conditions of proper dress for women; proper clothing for prayers.

    6.2 Cotton, silk, wool, etc.

    6.3 Use of rings, jewelry, for both men and women; use of make-up and nail polish.


    1. Sleeping

    7.1 The position of the body.

    7.2 The covering of the body.

     7.3 Sleeping in a masjid.


    1. Naming

    8.1 The best names.

    8.2 A review of names and meanings.

    8.3 Muslim names and Islamic identity.


    1. Manners in speaking and listening.

    9.1 Not raising the voice.

    9.2 Being attentive.


    1. Manners of sitting and walking.


    1. Manners in a gathering or organizational meeting.


    1. Visiting the sick and bereaved, and condolences.


    1. Duties of a Muslim to a Fellow Muslim

    13.1 Salutation, sneezing, sickness, funeral.

    13.2 Not to praise unduly, not to slander nor backbite, not to be sarcastic or abusive, not to spy or gossip, to avoid suspicion.

    13.3 Help and protection, removal of needs, forbearance, forgiveness.

    13.4 Smiling, good temper, honor to elderly and love for children, compassion for weak, infirm, needy.


    1. Manners with Family Members

    14.1 Announcing when entering home; salutation.

    14.2 Gentleness in speaking; showing affection.

    14.3 Firmness against un-Islamic and disrespectful behavior of children.

    14.4 Sexual propriety.




    1. Introduction

    1.1 The meaning of morality.

    1.2 Foundation of Islamic morality; faith and knowledge.

    1.3 The objectives of the Islamic teaching: a balanced life.

    1.4 The wisdom of the Divine commandments.


    1. Personal Character

    2.1 Sincerity, truthfulness and taqwafulfilling obligations and promises.

    2.2 Guarding chastity, covering of 'awrah.

    2:3 Thankfulness and humility before God; trust in God and steadfastness.

    2.4 Moderation in spending and mode of living.

    2.5 Generosity, courage, combativeness for the sake of God; standing up for truth and justice; patience.

    2.6 Avoidance of major sins; repentance; fear and hope.


    1. Impersonal Relations

    3.1 Hilmforbearance, kindness and forgiveness.

    3.2 Gentleness in speech and behavior, restraining anger.

    3.3 Refraining from gossip, slander, backbiting, spying, suspicion, mocking or defaming others.

    3.4 Cooperation on the basis of birr and taqwanot in sin and rebellion.

    3.5 Returning good for evil; defending and protecting Muslims' life, property and honor.


    1. Social Responsibilities

    4.1 Basic principles: mutual responsibility; authority commensurate to responsibility; general good; coopera­tion rather than competition.

    4.2 Parents and children.

    4.3 Husband and wife; 'amr and skura in the home.

    4.4 Relatives.

    4.5 Neighbors.

    4.6 Orphans and widows.

    4.7 Those in need.

    4.8 Fellow Muslims.

    4.9 Animals

    4.10 Inanimate world.


    1. Business Dealings

    5.1 Tij'arah and riba.

    5.2 Principles of ownership; personal property, inheritance.

    5.3 Returning of trusts, debts.



    1. Administrative Affairs

    6.1 Responsibilities of administrators and judges; justice and unbiasedness.

    6.2 'Amr and skura.


    1. Jihad

    7.1 The meaning of jihad.

    7.2 The kinds of jihad - asghar and akbar.

    7.3 Enjoining good and forbidding evil; social action.

    7.4 Fighting in the cause of Allah; positive aspects; rules of warfare.






    1. Introduction

    1.1 Meaning of Tazkiyyahthe role of the Prophet concerning tazkiyyay - islam, iman, ihsan.

    1.2 The immortality of the soul, the importance of the Hereafter.

    1.3 The purpose of human life: worship of Allah, knowledge of Allah, nearness to Allah.

    1.4 Who are the awlia Allah?


    1. Purification of Heart

    2.1 Contemplation of the Unity of God; removal of all kinds of shirk from the heart; trust in God and removal of fears of death, poverty, etc.

    2.2 Contemplation of self: intellect, speech and hearing, knowledge, life processes and death.

    2.3 Self-accounting: repentance, asking forgiveness of sins of commission and omission.

    2.4 Love of God, fear of God; love and fear of God; loving for God's sake and hating for God's sake; weeping with fear   of God.

    2.5 Reading of the Qur'an and contemplating its meaning.

    2.6 Dhikr, nafil prayers; muraqibah.


    1. Purification of Life

    3.1 Kasb halal; avoidance of doubtful things.

    3.2 Avoidance of major sins.

    3.3 Avoidance of idle talk, idle pursuits, idle thoughts.

    3.4 Moderation in living; detachment from material things.

    3.5 Humility, avoidance of pride; manner of speaking and walking.

    3.6 Company of good people; avoiding ignorant and bad people except when helping them.





















    1. Sex

    1.1 A person's spiritual nature and ultimate goal. The purpose of instincts, appetites and desires in human life. No asceticism and no indulgence but a disciplined and balanced life.

    1.2 Permissible and haram in sexual expression. The  concept of 'ismat for men and women. The concepts of haya (modesty) and khulwah (privacy).

    1.3 'Awrah for men and Women.


    1. Marriage

    2.1 Marriage: and family life is ordained by Allah; it is a sunnah No celibacy nor monkery in Islam.

    2.2 The purpose of marriage: fulfillment of the sexual urge; procreation; love and compassion; relaxation and comforts of home; the family as a socio-economic unit; upbringing the young; effort and sacrifice; companion­ ship and skura.

    2.3 Rights and obligations of marriage partners. Leadership role of man: mehrsupport, avoidance of injustice.

    2.4 Obligations of women: guarding husband's property and trusts, obedience.


    1. Steps for Marriage
    2. I Selection of the spouse. Qualities to be sought.

    3.2 Legal eligibility. Permanently forbidden relatives, polytheists; People of the Book.

    3.3 Marriage Contract. Requirements for it to be valid.

    3.4 Marriage celebration. Feast given by the bride groom.


    1. Family Living

    4.1 Mutual right and obligation. Sharing of household work, rearing of children, sexual etiquette, birth control and abortion.

    4.2 Upbringing of children. Teaching Islamic beliefs, practices and manners. Respect for parents and elders.

    4.3 Birth: initial adhancircumcision of males, 'aqiqah, nursing of infants.

    4.4 Extended family.

    4.5 Plural wives: why they are allowed; rules of treatment, abuses.


    1. Divorce

    5.1 Permissibility of divorce if unavoidable.

    5.2 Steps before divorce: mediation to reconcile, waiting for matters to improve.

    5.3 Kinds of divorce: raj'i (nullifiable during 'iddah) ,bayan (ordinary) and mutlaq (absolute). Divorce procedure. 'iddah.

    5.4 Relationship during the procedure of divorce.

    5.5 Responsibility of husband and wife toward each other and toward children in case of divorce.

    5.6 Khul'awomen initiating the divorce procedure, and its rules.

    5.7 Ila and ziharand the atonement for them.

    1. The Muslim Family inAmerica

    6.1 Family solidarity: praying together, eating together, recreations and vacations.

    6.2 Developing Islamic awareness in children: inculcation of absolute religious values rather than the cultural values of the "home country." Countering outside influences.

    6.3 Activity in local Muslim community life. Prayers, Qur'an study, meetings, social functions, religious festivals, Ramadan if tars, Islamic school. The practicing Muslims constitute one's community; other relationships are only peripheral.

    6.4 Activity in broader Muslim community. Youth camps, summer schools, conferences, conventions. Strengthening ties with committed Muslims around the country. Engaging in various forms of Islamic work. Travel to the Muslim world.

    6.5 Alternatives to outside attractions. Healthy sports, reading habits, travel and vacations, visiting Muslim homes. Giving as much responsibility as a youngster is ready for, to provide healthy alternatives.

    6.6 Attitude development toward dating and mixing of sexes, alcohol and drugs, television and movies, Christian and national holidays, the role and behavior of women.


    I-201 JIHAD


    1. Introduction

    1.1 Meaning of Jihad, striving within and striving without.

    1.2 The stages of jihad; a review of the Prophet's struggle

    (1) to ponder over wahy and transmit it to closest people, (2) to propagate the message, (3) to patiently persevere, (4) to organize a community of Muslims, (5) to defend the Muslim community from outside attacks, (6) to initiate preaching to other groups and nations, and (7) to demolish by force any resistance and the structures of


    1.3 The ultimate aim of jihad is the uplifting of the Word of God above all other words, within every human soul and within every group of people, not for gain of territory or imperial domination.


    1. The Characteristics of Jihad

    2.1 Islam is a practical religion and uses practical means: preaching or fighting if necessary.

    2.2 Jihad is a dynamic response to new challenges -it is not necessarily 'defense of the homeland of Islam.'

    2.3 It is not 'nationalistic,' not even in relation to 'Muslim nationalism.' Islam's call is to all people.

    2.4 Islam regulates the relationship of the Muslim community with non-Muslim communities. A contractual relationship: if contracts are broken then jihad becomes incumbent.


    1. Establishment of Allah's Authority

    3.1 Islam is a call for human freedom, for all mankind: freedom from fear of death. poverty, of lordship of one human being over another, of persecution.

    3.2 Islam does not permit Muslims to do injustice nor to   suffer injustice. If preaching is at intellectual plane, movement is at practical and material plane.

    3.3 The meaning of “worship” ('ubudiyah). Devotional      activity, absolute loyalty, obedience.

    3.4 The meaning of human freedom. Islam's freedom versus the Western idea of 'freedom.'

    3.5 The meaning of 'homeland of Islam' (dar al-Islam).


    1. The Commandments of Jihad

    4.1 The Makkan period -the reasons jihad was confined to preaching.

    4.2 The Madinan period -the gradual legislation of jihad.


    1. The Battles during the Prophet’s Time

    5.1 Badr -causes, the battle itself, the result, the treatment of the prisoners.

    5.2 Uhud -causes, the battle itself, defeat, pursuit, al-tawbah.

    5.3 Khandaq (the Trench).

    5.4 Battles with the Jewish tribes -causes and treatment of        various tribes.

    5.5 Conquest of Makkah and later battles.


    1. Jihad in Modern Times

    6.1 Usurpation of Muslim lands -Palestine, Kashmir, USSR, Ethiopia, etc.

    6.2 Persecution of Muslims -Philippines, Thailand, USSR, Chad, Eritrea, Iran, etc.

    6.3 Propagation of Islam in Africa, Europe, North and South America, Asia, Methods and means.






    1. Basic Principles

    1.1 Everything is permissible except what is forbidden.

    1.2 Forbidding and permitting is the right of God only; to forbid what is permissible or to permit what is forbidden is shirk.

    1.3 Forbidding is not arbitrary; forbidden things are harmful and God knows what is harmful or beneficial for man.

    1.4 What leads to haram is also haramgood intentions do not change haram.

    1.5 What is haram is haram for everyone.

    1.6 Dururah makes exceptions.


    1. Basic Principles

    2.1 Islam permits clean food and forbids what is unclean. Forbidden are dead animals, blood, swine flesh, what is dedicated to other than God; the wisdom of these. Fish, seafood and locusts are exempted from this rule. Dead animals' skin and bones; dururah makes them halalMedical necessity. Sea animals are all halal.

    2.3 How to slaughter an animal. Christian and Jewish dhabihaStunning by electric shock. Not to ask  concerning what is not seen by us.

    2.4 Hunting and its rules.

    2.5 Every intoxicant is forbidden, even in small quantities. Any kind of dealing in intoxicants is haram,. staying away from where people are drinking.

    2.6 Smoking.

    2.7 The prohibited land animals.


    1. Dress

    3.1 Dress is for covering and for beauty. Religion requires           decency, cleanliness and beautification.

    3.2 Gold and silk are forbidden for men but not for women; reason.

    3.3 Dress of a Muslim woman. Imitating the dress of the opposite sex.

    3.4 Make-up; hair-dressing; cutting of moustache.


    1. Household Items

    4.1 Islam requires cleanliness and beauty, but no ostentation     or waste. Gold and silver utensils.

    4.2 Pictures: complete and incomplete; paintings, sculptures, photographs.

    4.3 Dogs: hunting and watch-dogs. Cat.










    1. Islamic Foundations of Social justice

    1.1 Development of a conscience; fear of God, purity of faith,    sincerity of action.

    1.2 Brotherhood of Muslims; no priesthood; importance of knowledge; men and women are all servants of God; no distinction except through knowledge and taqwa

    1.3 Definition of mutual rights and responsibilities: rights of self; rights of parents; rights of spouses; rights of children. Cooperation in good. Obedience to Allah, the Prophet, the amir.


    1. Ways of Establishing Social justice

    2.1 Trust in individual; witnessing.

    2.2 Zakat and charity.

    2.3 Teaching of      mercy,         kindness, justice, generosity, hospitality, mutual concern, cooperation for good. No distinction except on basis of taqwa and knowledge.

    2.4 Crimes and punishments.


    1. Individual Muslims

    3.1 Right to life, property, honor, free status, marriage, having children, legitimate work, assembly, due process of law, travel.

    3.2 Responsibilities to acquire religious knowledge, skills for earning a living, participation in obligatory Friday prayers, paying Zakat if applicable, participating in 'amr bil m’arufand in jihad


    1. Relations between the Sexes

    4.1 Purity and chastity are essential Islamic qualities for both men and women; Muslims' interaction is to be based on sincerity, responsibility and purity.

    4.2 The family is the basis of Islamic society. It must be safeguarded by every possible means. The sanctity of the marriage relationship; the importance of two parents for rearing children.

    4.3 Regulation of relations between the sexes is essential to any civilized society. No free mixing between men and women; no being alone together or pre-marital intimacy; observing the limits of propriety if mixing occurs; Islamic dress and behavior.

    4.4 Islamic regulations concerning sex designed to limit     sexual expression between husband and wife.

    4.5 Islamic dress for women: reflects the concept of womanhood which Islam desires -not simply a matter of external form but of great social significance in maintaining pure relations between the sexes. The requirements of Islamic dress for women; for men.

    4.6 Islamic teachings regarding fornication, adultery, homo­sexuality, masturbation.


    1. Family Life

    5.1 Harmony rather than strife, cooperation (shura) rather than competition; alleviating sibling rivalry; eating        together; sharing household work.

    5.2 Religious obligations observed: collective prayers;      collective fasting; encouraging children to ask questions; a program for teaching religion to children.

    5.3 Visiting and inviting other Muslims, participation in community activities. Islamic identity comes before everything else; thus associates are of great importance: counteracting un-Islamic activities by strong family life and suitable activities.

    5.4 Travel and recreation.

    5.5 Old parents and relatives and their care.


    1. Community Life

    6.1 The masjidFriday prayers.

    6.2 Islamic education for children; halaqahs for adults.

    6.3 Zakat collection and distribution to the needy, orphans, widows, old people.

    6.4 Settling family disputes, counseling, ways of mutual    help, mediation.

    6.5 Performing Muslim ceremonies, birth, marriage, funeral, burial.

    6.6 Public health, hospitals.

    6.7 Sports, recreations and entertainments, the arts.


    1. Holidays

    7.1 Friday

    7.2 'Eids

    7.3 Lailat al-Meraj, Lailat al-Qadr, 15th Shaban.

    7.4 Prophet's birthday.


    1. Ceremonies

    8.1 Birth.

    8.2 Circumcision, initiation into reading the Qur'an.

    8.2 Wedding.

    8.4 Funeral.




    1. Private Property

    1.1 The right to own property; punishment for theft.

    1.2 The nature of ownership; a trust; the share of the com­munity; community property (water, fire, grass, minerals) .

    1.3 Acquiring private property: to make waste land productive; to mine; to work for wages and salary; gift for government; inheritance.

    1.4 Increase in property: trade, improvement of methods, cultivation of land, industry.

    1.5 Prohibitions: interest, gambling, prohibition of land rent and share-cropping, hoarding, selling something which one doesn't own, monopoly, trade in prohibited things such as alcohol, drugs.


    1. Public Finance

    2.1 Zakat

    2.1.1Zakat on cash, gold and silver, articles of trade.

    2.1.2 Zakat on cattle, sheep, goats and camels.

    2.1.3 Zakat on produce of the earth.

    2.2 Revenue

    2.2.1 Land tax.

    2.2.2 Customs and tolls.

    2.2.3 Jaz'zya

    2.2.4 Tax on mines.

    2.2.5 Estate on intestate persons; other taxes.

    2.2.6 Income from government-owned and run property and industry.

    2.3 Expenditure

    2.3.1 Expenditure of Zakat Beneficiaries.

    2.3.2 Public administration.

    2.3.3 Defense.


    Policies of the Prophet


    Policies of 'Umar


    Modern Economv

    5.1 Banking, savings and Joan associations, credit unions.

    5.2 Corporations.

    5.3 Insurance.

    5.4 Nationalization.

    5.5 Use of technology.

    5.6 Savings and investments.



    1. Household Budgeting

    6.1 Keeping records of income and expenditure. Recurring and non-recurring expenses.

    6.2 Control on expenditure: estimation and budgeting.

    6.3 Planning for future: insurances, savings and investments.

    6.4 Computation of Zakat

    6.5 Making of wills.




    1. Political Theory

    1.1 The sovereignty of God and the vice-gerency of man; the supremacy of the Shari'ah; hudud Allah.

    1.2 The purpose of the Islamic state: establishment of Salat, Zakat; enjoining good and forbidding evil; defending the homeland of Islam; giving Islamic advice in international affairs. Other purposes: the welfare of the people; administration; justice; security; education; public

    health; public services.


    1. The Structure

    2.1 The leader (amir): qualification and selection; limits of his power; change of leadership.

    2.2 The Shura (advisory council).

    2.3 Justice.


    1. People

    3.1 Muslims and non-Muslims.

    3.2 Rights of the individual.

    3.3 Duties of the individual.


    1. Case Studies

    4.1 The Prophet as Head of the Islamic state.

    4.2 Al-Khulafa al-Rashidoon.

    4.3 Ummayah and 'Abasiyyah.

    4.4 The 'Uthmaniyah.

    4.5 Pakistan.



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