Fiqh Assunah

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  • Fiqh Assunah

  • Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Volume 1: Purification

    Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Volume 1: Purification

    The shari'ah has divided water into four kinds:

    -1- mutlaq water,

    -2- used water (for purification),

    -3- water mixed with pure elements and

    -4- water mixed with impure elements. We shall discuss each of them

    Volume 1, Page 1a: Mutlaq water

    This kind of water is considered pure because of its inherent purity
    and as such, it can be used by an individual to purify him or herself.
    It consists of the following categories:

    Volume 1, Page 1b: Rain water, snow, and hail

    These substances are pure because Allah says so: "And sent down
    water from the sky upon you, that thereby He might purify you..."
    (al-Anfal 1), and "We send down purifying water from the sky"
    (al-Furqan 48). This is also supported by the following hadith: Abu
    Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, used
    to be silent between the (opening) takbir of the prayer and the verbal
    Qur'anic recitation. Abu Hurairah asked him, "O Messenger of Allah, may
    my father and mother be sacrificed for you, why do you remain silent
    between the takbir and the recital? What do you say (silently during
    that time)?" He said, "I say, 'O Allah, make a distance between me and
    my sins similar to the distance you have made between the East and the
    West. O Allah, cleanse me of my sins in the manner that a white garment
    (is cleansed) from dirt. O Allah, wash my sins from me with snow,
    water, and hail."' This hadith is related by the "group", except for

    Volume 1, Page 2: Sea water

    Sea water's purity is based on the following hadith: Abu Hurairah
    related that a man asked the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, "O
    Messenger of Allah, we sail on the ocean and we carry only a little
    water. If we use it for ablution, we will have to go thirsty. May we
    use sea water for ablution?" Said the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be
    peace, "Its (the sea) water is pure and its dead (animals) are lawful
    (i.e., they can be eaten without any prescribed slaughtering)." This
    hadith is related by "the five." At-Tirmizhi calls it hassan sahih, and
    al-Bukhari says it is sahih.

    Volume 1, Page 2a: Water from the well of Zamzam

    'Ali narrated that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace,
    called for a bucket that contained water from the well of Zamzam. He
    drank from the bucket, then made ablution (with its water). This hadith
    is related by Ahmad.

    Volume 1, Page 2b: Altered water

    This involves water whose form has been altered because of its being
    in a place for a long period of time, or because of the place in which
    it is located, or because of its being mixed with a substance that
    cannot be completely removed from it (i.e., water mixed with algae,
    tree leaves, and so on). The scholars agree that this type of water
    falls under the heading of mutlaq water.

    The rationale is simple: everything that falls under the general term
    of water, without any further qualifications, is considered pure, for
    the Qur'an says, "...and if you find not water, then go to clean, high
    ground..." (al-Ma'idah 6).

    Volume 1, Page 2c: Used water

    This category refers to water which drips from the person after he
    performs ablution or ghusl. It is considered pure because it was pure
    before its use for ablution, and there is no basis to think that it has
    lost its purity. This statement is supported by the hadith of Rab'i
    bint Mu'wazh which describes the ablution of the Messenger of Allah.
    She states, "He wiped his head with (the water) remaining on his hands
    from his ablution." This hadith is related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud. Abu
    Dawud's version is, "The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, wiped
    his head with the extra water that was in his hand." Abu Hurairah also
    reported that the Messenger of Allah met him alone in the streets of
    Madinah while he was in post-sex impurity. He therefore slipped away,
    made ghusl and returned. The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace,
    asked him "Where have you been, Abu Hurairah?" He answered, "I was in
    post-sex impurity and did not want to sit with you while I was in that
    condition." The Prophet replied, "Glory be to Allah. The believer does
    not become impure." This is related by "the group."

    This is based on the rationale that since a believer never becomes
    impure, the water he uses for purification also does not become impure.
    Thus, a pure object touching a pure object cannot result in one's
    becoming impure. Ibn al-Munzhir said that it is related that 'Ali, Ibn
    'Umar, Abu Umamah, 'Ata, al-Hassan, Makhul and anNakha'i said that if a
    person forgot to wipe his head while making ablution, it is sufficient
    for him to wipe his head with any water remaining in his beard. Ibn
    al-Munzhir stated that this proves that they took "used water" as pure.
    This opinion comes from one of the narrations attributed to Malik and
    ash-Shaf'i. Ibn Hazm ascribes it to Sufyan al-Thauri, Abu Thaur, and
    all scholars of the Zhahiri school of thought.

    Volume 1, Page 3: Water mixed with pure elements

    This category includes water that has been mixed with substances
    like soap, saffron, flowers, and so on, that is, objects considered
    pure by the shari'ah. Such water is considered pure as long as it has
    not been so mixed with other substances that one can no longer call it
    water. If this is the case, the water is still considered pure, but it
    cannot be used for purification. Umm 'Atiyah narrated that the
    Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, entered her house after the
    death of his daughter Zainab and said, "Wash her three or five or more
    times--if you see fit to do so--with water and dry tree leaves. For the
    final washing, use some kafoor or something from kafoor. When you are
    finished, inform me." She did so, after which he gave the women his
    outer garment and told them to wrap Zainab in it. This was related by
    "the group."

    The deceased should be washed with something that may purify a live
    person. Ahmad, an-Nasa'i and Ibn Khuzaimah record from Umm Hani that
    the Messenager of Allah and Maimunah washed themselves from one (water)
    container that had a trace of dough in it. In both of these hadith, we
    find that the water was mixed with another substance, but since the
    other substance was not substantial enough to alter its nature, it
    remained fit for consumption.

    Volume 1, Page 3a: Water mixed with impure elements

    We can divide this category into two sub-categories:

    -1- The impure substance alters the taste, color or odor of the water.
    In this case, it can not be used for purification. According to Ibn
    al-Munzhir and Ibn al-Mulaqqin, there is a consensus on this point.

    -2- The liquid is still considered water, meaning that the impure
    substance has not altered its taste, color or odor. Such water is
    considered pure and may be used for purification. This is based upon
    the following hadith: Abu Hurairah reported that a bedouin urinated in
    the mosque. The people stood to get him (and stop him). The Prophet
    said, "Leave him and pour a bucket of water or a container of water
    over his urine. You have been raised to be easy on the people, not to
    be hard on them." This hadith is narrated by "the group," except for

    Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri asked the Prophet, "Can we make ablution from the
    well of Buda'ah (i.e., a well in Madinah)?" The Prophet, upon whom be
    peace, told him, "Water is pure and nothing makes it impure."

    This hadith is related by Ahmad, ash-Shaf'i, Abu Dawud, anNasa'i and
    at-Tirmizhi, who classified it as hassan. Ahmad said, "This hadith is
    sahih and Yahya ibn Ma'een and Muhammad ibn Hazm classified it as
    such." This is also the opinion of Ibn 'Abbas, Abu Hurairah, al-Hassan
    al-Basri, Ibn al-Musayyab, 'Ikrimah, Ibn Abu Laila, al-Thauri, Dawud
    azh-Zhahiri, an-Nakha'i, Malik and others. Says al-Ghazzali, "I wish
    ash-Shaf'i's opinion was like Malik's."

    There is also a hadith from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar in which the Messenger
    of Allah is reported to have said, "If there are at least two buckets
    of water, it will not carry any impurity." This hadith is related by
    the "five." However, this hadith is muzhtarab in its chain of narrators
    and text. Ibn 'Abdul-Barr said in at-Tamheed, "As to the opinion of
    ash-Shaf'i which is based on this hadith, it is weak on scrutiny and is
    not confirmed by historical reports."

    Volume 1, Page 4: Leftover water

    "Leftover water" is what remains in a pot after some has been drunk.
    There are five different types of leftover water.

    Volume 1, Page 4a: Water leftover after people have
    drunk from the pot

    According to the shari'ah, such water is considered pure regardless
    of whether the one who drank from the pot was a Muslim, an unbeliever,
    a person in post-sex impurity or a menstruating woman.

    Although Allah says in the Qur'an, "Verily, the idol worshippers are
    impure" (at-Taubah) this is a reference not to their physical state,
    but to their false beliefs and creed. They may come into contact with
    dirt or impurities, but this does not mean that their possessions or
    bodies are impure. In fact, they used to mix with the Muslims. Their
    emmissaries and delegations used to visit the Messenger of Allah and
    enter his mosque. The Prophet, upon whom be peace, did not order that
    the objects they touched be cleansed. As for mensturating women,
    'Aishah said, "I used to drink (from a container) while I was
    menstruating. I would then pass it to the Messenger of Allah and he
    would drink from the same spot where I had put my lips." (Related by

    Volume 1, Page 5: Water left in a container after an
    allowable animal has drunk from it

    Such water is considered pure. Since the animal qualifies for
    consumption, its saliva is also pure. Abu Bakr ibn al-Munzhir said,
    "The scholars are agreed that such water is permissible to drink or use
    for ablution."

    Volume 1, Page 5a: Water remaining in a pot after it has
    been drunk by a donkey, mule, beasts of birds of prey

    Such water is also considered pure, based on the hadith of Jabir in
    which the Messenger of Allah was asked about making ablution with
    drinking water left by donkeys. The Prophet, upon whom be peace,
    answered, "Yes, and from the drinking water left by any of the beasts
    of prey." This hadith was related by ash-Shaifi, ad-Daraqutni and
    al-Baihaqi who said, "When its different chains are put together they
    become strong." It has also been related from Ibn 'Umar that the
    Messenger of Allah went out at night while he was on a journey. He
    passed by a man who was sitting by a pond. Said 'Umar, "Did a beast of
    prey drink from your pond tonight?" The Messenger of Allah told him, "O
    owner of the pond, do not inform him. It is not necessary, for him (the
    beast of prey) is what he carried in his stomach and for us is what he
    left, water to be used for drinking and purifying." This is related by
    ad-Daraqutni. Yahya ibn Sa'eed reported that once 'Umar was among a
    group that included 'Amr ibn al-'Aas and, when they came upon a pond,
    'Amr said, "O owner of the pond, have the beasts of prey discovered
    your pond?" 'Umar said, "Do not inform us, since the people drink after
    the wild beasts and the wild beasts after the people." This is related
    by Malik in al-Muwatta.

    Volume 1, Page 6: Water left in a pot after a cat has
    drunk from it

    Such water is also considered pure. This is proven by the hadith of
    Kabshah bint Ka'b who, when she was under the care of Abu Qatadah,
    entered the room to pour some water for him. A cat came, drank some of
    the water, and Qatadah proceeded to tilt the container so the cat could
    drink more. Kabshah said, "He noticed that I was watching him." He
    asked, "Are you surprised, O niece?" I answered, "Yes." He said, "The
    Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said, 'It (the cat) is not
    impure. They intermingle with you."'

    Volume 1, Page 6a: Water left in a pot after a pig or
    dog has drunk from it

    Such water is considered impure and must be avoided. Al-Bukhari and
    Muslim have recorded, on the authority of Abu Hurairah, that the
    messenger of Allah said, "If a dog drinks from one of your containers,
    wash it seven times." Ahmad and Muslim also have this addition,
    "Cleanse one of your containers if a dog licks it by washing it seven
    times, the first washing being with dirt." As for the leftover water of
    a pig, it is clearly considered filth and impure.

    Volume 1, Page 6b: Types of impurities

    Najasah refers to impure substances that the Muslim must avoid and
    wash off if they should happen to contaminate his clothes, body and so
    on. Says Allah in the Qur'an, "Purify your raiment" (alMudathar 4);
    and, "Allah loves those who repent and who purify themselves"
    (al-Baqarah 222). The Messenger of Allah also said, "Purity is half of
    the faith."

    Volume 1, Page 6c: Dead animals

    This refers to animals which die from "natural causes," that is,
    without the proper Islamic way of slaughtering. It also includes
    anything that is cut off of a live animal. Abu Waqid al-Laithy reported
    that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "What is cut off of a live
    animal is considered dead," i.e., it is considered like an animal that
    has not been properly slaughtered. This is related by Abu Dawud and by
    at-Tirmizhi, who classifies it as hassan and says that the scholars act
    according to this hadith.

    Volume 1, Page 7: Dead animals of the sea and dead

    Ibn 'Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah said, "Two types of
    dead animals and two types of blood have been made lawful for us. The
    types of dead animals are seafood and locusts. The two types of blood
    are the (blood of the) liver and the spleen."

    This is related by Ahmad, ash-Shaf'i, al-Baihaqi and adDaraqutni. The
    hadith is weak, but Imam Ahmad says that it is authentic in mauqoof
    form. Abu Zar'ah and Abu Hatim have said the same. Such a report has
    the implication of a marfu' hadith because a companion saying, "This
    was allowed for us" or "This was forbidden for us" is like one of them
    saying, "We were ordered to do this," or "We were forbidden to do
    this," and so on. (Such statements are considered marfu' with respect
    to their regulations). And we have already mentioned the Prophet's
    statement concerning the ocean, "Its water is pure and its 'dead
    animals' are allowable (to eat.)."

    Volume 1, Page 7a: Dead animals that have no running

    (That is) bees, ants, and so on. They are considered pure. If they
    fall into some substance and die, the substance will not become impure.
    Ibn al-Munzhir said, "I do not know of any disagreement concerning the
    purity of such water save what has been related from ash-Shaf'i. It is
    well-known that he views them as being impure. Nevertheless, it does
    not bother him if the object falling into a substance does not alter it
    (in any way)."

    Volume 1, Page 7b: Bones, horns, claws, fur, feathers,
    and skin and so on of dead animals

    All of these are considered pure. Concerning the bones of dead
    animals, az-Zuhri said, "I have met some scholars of the preceeding
    generations who used such objects for combs and pots for oil, and they
    did not see anything wrong in that." This is related by al-Bukhari.
    Said Ibn 'Abbas, "The client of Maimunah was given a sheep as charity,
    and it died. The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, passed by it
    and said, 'Why do you not remove its skin, treat it and put it to use?'
    She said, 'It is dead' (i.e., it has not been slaughtered properly). He
    said to her, 'Only eating it is forbidden."' This is related by the
    group. Ibn Majah attributes the incident to Maimunah and her client.
    Al-Bukhari and an-Nasa'i do not mention treating the skin. It is
    reported from Ibn 'Abbas that he recited: "Say (O Muhammad): "In all
    that has been revealed to me, I do not find anything forbidden to eat;
    if one wants to eat thereof, unless it be carrion, or blood poured
    forth, or swine flesh..." (al-An'am 145). Then he said, "What is
    forbidden is its meat. As for its skin, skin used for waterskins,
    teeth, bones, fur and wool, they are permissible." This is narrated by
    Ibn Munzhir and Ibn Hatim. Similarly, its rennet and milk are
    considered pure. This is supported by the fact that when the companions
    conquered Iraq, they ate the cheese of the Magians which was made from
    rennet, although their slaughtered animals were considered the same as
    'dead animals.' It is confirmed from Salman al-Farsi that when he was
    asked about cheese, clarified butter and pelts, he said, "What is
    permissible is what Allah made permissible in His book. What is
    forbidden is what Allah made forbidden in His book. What he omits, He
    has pardoned for you." It is well-known that he was being asked about
    the cheese of the Magians, as Salman was 'Umar's deputy in Mada'in,

    Volume 1, Page 8: Blood

    This includes blood that pours forth from an animal's body, such as
    blood from a slaughtered animal, or from menstruation, except for what
    small amounts are overlooked. Ibn Juraij said about the Qur'anic verse
    "...or blood poured forth..." (al-An'am 145), that this is the blood
    that flows out. The blood that does not flow out, but remains in the
    veins, is permissible. This is related by Ibn al-Munzhir. And it is
    also related from Abu Majlizn in his discourse on blood that he was
    asked, "What about the blood that remains in the slaughtered sheep or
    at the top of the cooking pot?" He answered, "There is no problem with
    it. What is forbidden is the blood that flows out (of the animal at the
    time of slaughtering)." This was recorded by 'Abd ibn Hameed and by Abu
    ash-Shaikh. It is also related from 'Aishah that she said, "We used to
    eat the meat when the blood was streaking the pot." Al-Hassan said,
    "The Muslims always prayed, even while they were bleeding." This was
    mentioned by al-Bukhari. It is confirmed that 'Umar prayed while his
    wound was bleeding. Elucidating the point, Ibn Hajr says in Fath
    al-Bari (a commentary on Sahih al-Bukhari): "Abu Hurairah did not see
    anything wrong in a drop or two of blood during the prayers. Based on
    this report from Abu Hurairah, the blood of a flee or the blood that
    comes from a pimple are to be overlooked. Abu Majlizn was asked about
    pus that gets on the body or the clothes. He said, 'There is nothing
    wrong with them. Allah mentions only the blood, not the pus."'

    Commenting on the subject, Ibn Taimiyyah says, "It is obligatory to
    clean the clothes from pus, purulent matter or similar fluids." He also
    says, "There is no proof concerning its impurity." It is preferred for
    the person to avoid contact as much as possible with these substances.

    Volume 1, Page 9: Pig's meat

    According to the verse (al-An'am 145) quoted earlier, items
    mentioned therein are impure. The pronoun 'they' refers to all three of
    the mentioned items. It is, however, allowed to knit with the hair of a
    pig according to most of the scholars.

    Volume 1, Page 9a: Vomiting of a person, urine, and

    There is agreement among the scholars that these objects are impure.
    But, a slight amount of vomit (commonly understood as a small amount of
    liquid) and the urine of an unweaned male baby are overlooked and
    pardoned. It is sufficient just to sprinkle water over the urine of an
    unweaned male baby. This is based on the hadith of Umm Qais. She came
    to the Messenger of Allah with her unweaned son. After a while, the
    baby urinated in the Prophet's lap. The Prophet, upon whom be peace,
    called for some water, which he sprinkled over his clothes, and did not
    give them a complete washing. This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.

    'Ali narrated that the Messenger of Allah said, "The urine of a baby
    boy should have water sprinkled upon it. The urine of a baby girl is to
    be washed off." Says Qatadah, "This refers to a male baby that has not
    yet begun to eat. If he already eats, then the garment is to be

    This hadith is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi and Ibn Majah.
    In al-Fath, Ibn Hajr says its chain is sahih.

    Sprinkling is sufficient as long as the boy is still nursing. If he
    eats solid food, his urine must be washed from the clothes and body.
    There is no disagreement on this latter point. Perhaps the reason for
    this exemption to the male baby's urine is that people have a tendency
    to carry their male babies around, and it would have been difficult to
    clean the clothes after their frequent urinations.

    Volume 1, Page 10: Al-Wadi

    Wadi is a thick white secretion discharged (by some people) after
    urination. It is considered impure. 'Aishah said, " Wadi comes out
    after urination. The person should wash the private parts and perform
    ablution. It is not necessary to perform ghusl. This is related by Ibn
    al-Munzhir. Ibn 'Abbas related that "mani (sperm) requires ghusl. As
    for mazhi (semen) and wadi they require a complete purification." This
    is related by al-Athram. Al-Baihaqi has it with the wording,
    "Concerning mazhi (prostatic fluid) and wadi, he said, 'Wash your
    sexual organs and perform the same type of ablution as you perform for

    Volume 1, Page 10a: Al-Mazhi or prostatic fluid

    This is a white sticky fluid that flows from the sexual organs
    because of thinking about sexual intercourse or foreplay, and so on.
    The person is usually not aware of when exactly it is secreted. It
    comes from both the male and the female sexual organs, although the
    amount from the latter is usually more than the former's. Scholars are
    agreed that it is impure. If it gets on the body, it is obligatory to
    wash it off. If it gets on the clothes, it suffices to sprinkle the
    area with water, as it is very hard to be completely protected from
    this impurity, especially for the young, single person. 'Ali said, "I
    used to excrete mazhi, so I asked a man to ask the Messenger of Allah,
    upon whom be peace, about it. I was shy to do so because of my position
    with respect to his daughter ('Ali was the Prophet's son-in-law). He
    said, 'Make ablution and wash your penis." This is related by
    al-Bukhari and others. Sahl ibn Hanif said, "I used to suffer from
    excessive amounts of mazhi. I used to make lots of ghusl because of it.
    So I mentioned this to the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, and
    he said, 'It is sufficient to take a handful of water and sprinkle it
    over your clothes wherever the fluid appears."

    The hadith is related by Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, and at-Tirmizhi. The
    latter says, "The hadith is hassan sahih. In the chain is Muhammad ibn
    Ishaq, who is considered weak when he relates in mu'an'an (handed-down)
    form because of his reputation as one who commited tadlis. But in this
    narration, he makes it clear that he heard the hadith directly."
    Al-Athram narrated the same hadith with the wording, "I was bothered by
    a great deal of mazhi, so I went to the Prophet, upon whom be peace,
    and informed him of this. He said 'It is sufficient for you to take a
    handful of water and sprinkle it over (the mazhi)."'

    Volume 1, Page 11: Sperm, Al-Mani

    Some scholars say that sperm is impure, but apparently it is pure,
    for it is only recommended to wash it off if it is still wet, and to
    scratch it off if it is dry. Said 'Aishah, "I used to scratch the sperm
    off the Messenger of Allah's clothes if it was dry, and wash it off if
    it was still wet." (This is related by ad-Daraqutni, Abu 'Awanah and
    al-Bazzar). It is also related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "I asked the
    Messenger of Allah about sperm on clothes. He said, 'It is the same as
    mucus and spittle. It is sufficient to rub the area with a rag or

    The hadith was related by ad-Daraqutni, al-Baihaqi and atTahawi. There
    is a difference in the narration over whether it should be in marfu'or
    mauqoof form.

    Volume 1, Page 11a: The urine and stools of animals
    that are permissible to eat

    Both of these are considered impure. Ibn Mas'ud related that the
    Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, went to answer the call of
    nature. He asked 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud to bring three stones. 'Abdullah
    said, "I could not find three stones, so I found two stones and animal
    dung and brought them to him. He took the two stones and threw away the
    dung saying, 'It is impure."'

    The hadith is related by al-Bukhari, Ibn Majah, and Ibn Khuzaimah. In
    one narration it states, "It is impure. It is the stool of a donkey." A
    little amount of it is pardoned though, as it is very difficult to
    completely protect one's self from it. Al-Waleed ibn Muslim says, "I
    said to al-Auza'i, 'What about the urine of animals whose meat is not
    eaten, like the mule, donkey and horse?' He said that they used to come
    into contact with these during their battles, and that they did not
    wash it off their bodies or clothes. As for the urine and stools of
    animals whose meat is permissible, Malik, Ahmad and a group of the
    Shaifiyyah says that it is pure. Commenting on the subject, Ibn
    Taimiyyah says, "None of the companions held that it is impure. In
    fact, the statement that it is impure is of recent origin and not from
    the early generations of the companions."

    Said Anas, "A group of people from the tribes of Ukul or 'Uraina came
    to Madinah and became ill in their stomach. The Prophet ordered them to
    get a milking she-camel and drink a mixture of its milk and urine."
    This hadith is related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari and Muslim and points to a
    camel's urine as being pure. Therefore, by analogy, other permissible
    animals' urine may also be considered pure. Says Ibn al-Munzhir, "Those
    who claim that that was permissible only for those people are
    incorrect. Specification is only confirmed by some specific proof." He
    also says, "The scholars permit, without any objection, the sale of
    sheep's stools and the use of camel's urine in their medicine, both in
    the past and in the present, again without any objection. This shows
    that they are considered pure." Says ash-Shaukani, "Apparently, the
    urine and stools of every living animal permissible to eat is pure."
    There is nothing to prove otherwise.

    Volume 1, Page 12: Jallalah

    Jallalah refers to an animal that eats the waste or flesh of other
    animals, such as camels, cows, sheep, chickens, geese, and so on. Ibn
    'Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah forbade the drinking of
    such animals' milk.

    This hadith is related by "the five," except for Ibn Majah. At-Tirmizhi
    grades it as sahih. In one narration it states, "It is also prohibited
    to ride upon a jallalah. (Related by Abu Dawud.) 'Amr ibn Shu'aib
    related on the authority of his father, from his grandfather, that the
    Messenger of Allah prohibited the meat of domestic donkeys. As for the
    jallalah, he prohibited riding or eating them." (Related by Ahamad,
    an-Nasa'i and Abu Dawud.) If the jallalah animal is kept away from the
    other animals for some time and is given clean food to eat, then it
    becomes pure and is no longer called jallalah. If this is the case, it
    becomes permissible to eat, as the reason for its prohibition was the
    change it underwent due to eating filth, a state which would no longer
    be present.

    Volume 1, Page 12a: Alcohol

    According to most scholars, alcohol is impure. Says Allah in the
    Qur'an, "Alcohol, games of chance, idols and divining arrows are only
    an infamy of Satan's handiwork." Some scholars say that it is pure, for
    they take the meaning of rajis in its abstract sense as describing
    alcohol and whatever is related to it. This is not labeled as impure in
    a definite, sensory way. Says Allah, "Stay away from the impurities of
    idols." Idols are impure in the abstract sense, and they are considered
    impure if one touches them. The explanation of the preceding verse is
    that they are a tool of Satan, for they cause enmity and hatred and
    keep people away from the remembrance of Allah and pra.yer. In Subul
    as-Salaam it says, "Their origin is pure and their being prohibited
    does not mean that the object itself is impure. For example, hashish is
    prohibited but it is pure. But, something impure is not necessarily
    prohibited. Every impure thing is prohibited, but not vice-versa. That
    is because of the ruling that something impure cannot be touched under
    any circumstances. If a ruling says that something is impure, it is
    also prohibited. This differs from a ruling that something is
    prohibited. For example, it is forbidden to wear silk and gold, but
    they are absolutely pure by consensus." If one understands that, then
    the prohibition of alcohol does not necessarily entail its also being
    considered impure: it needs some other evidence to prove that it is
    impure. If not, then we are left with the original position that it is
    pure. If one claims other than that, he must substantiate it.

    Volume 1, Page 13: Purifying the body and clothes

    If the clothes or body are contaminated with impurities, it is
    obligatory to wash them with water until they are cleansed of the
    impurities. This is especially the case if the impurity is visible,
    such as blood. If there are some stains that remain after washing which
    would be extremely difficult to remove, they can be overlooked. If the
    impurity is not visible, such as urine, it is sufficient to wash it one
    time. 'Asma bint Abu Bakr related that a woman came to the Prophet,
    upon whom be peace, and said, "Our clothes are contaminated with
    menstrual blood. What should we do about this?" He said, "Scrape it,
    rub it with water, pour water over it and then pray in it." (This is
    related by al-Bukhari and Muslim) If impurities get on the lower
    portion of a woman's dress, it is purified by dust as she trails along.
    A woman said to Umm Salamah, "I have a long dress that drags on the
    ground, even when I walk through places that contain filth. What should
    I do about it?" Umm Salamah answered her, "The Messenger of Allah said,
    'What comes after it purifies it."' This is related by Ahmad and Abu

    Volume 1, Page 13a: Dogs

    Dogs are considered impure. Any container that a dog has licked must
    be washed seven times, the first time with dirt. Abu Hurairah reported
    that the Messenager of Allah, upon whom be peace, said, "Purifying a
    container that a dog has licked is done by washing it seven times, the
    first washing being with dirt (that is, water mixed with dirt until it
    becomes muddy)." This was related by Muslim, Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and
    al-Baihaqi. If a dog licks a pot that has dry food in it, what it
    touched and what surrounds it must be thrown away. The remainder may be
    kept, as it is still pure. As for a dog's fur, it is considered pure.

    Volume 1, Page 14: Purifying the ground

    If there are impurities on the ground, it is purified by pouring
    water over it. This is proven by Abu Hurairah's hadith, mentioned
    earlier, about the bedouin who urinated in the mosque. The Prophet,
    upon whom be peace, said all that needed to be done for purification
    was to pour water over it. Said Abu Qulabah, "The drying of the ground
    is its purification." 'Aishah said, "The purification of the ground is
    its becoming dry." (Related by Ibn Abi Shaibah.) This, of course,
    refers to the case where the impurity is a liquid. If the impurity is a
    solid, the ground will only become pure by its removal or decay.

    Volume 1, Page 14a: Purifying clarified butter and
    other similar substances

    Ibn 'Abbas relates from Maimunah that the Prophet, upon whom be
    peace, was asked about a mouse that fell into a pot of clarified
    butter. He said, "Take (the mouse) and what is around it out, and throw
    it away. Then eat (the rest of) your clarified butter." This is related
    by al-Bukhari.

    Commenting on the subject, al-Hafezh Ibn Hajr says, "Ibn 'Abdul Barr
    reported that there is agreement that if a dead animal falls into a
    solid matter, what the dead animal touches and what is around it must
    be thrown away, provided that one can make sure that the animal did not
    touch the remainder. As for a liquid substance, there is some
    difference of opinion. The majority say that the entire liquid becomes
    impure; az-Zuhri, al-Auza'i, and some others disagree with that

    Volume 1, Page 15: Purifying the skin of dead animals

    Tanning purifies the skin and the fur of a dead animal. This is
    based on the hadith of Ibn 'Abbas, in which the Prophet said, "If the
    animal's skin is tanned, it is purified." (Related by al-Bukhari and

    Volume 1, Page 15a: Purifying mirrors and similar

    Mirrors, knives, swords, nails, bones, glass, painted pots and other
    smooth surfaces that have no pores are purified by simply wiping them
    and removing any impure remains. The companions of the Prophet used to
    pray while wearing swords smeared with blood, and they used to just
    wipe the swords to purify them.

    Volume 1, Page 15b: Purifying shoes

    Shoes may be purified by rubbing them against the ground, as long as
    the remains of the impurity are removed. Abu Hurairah narrated that the
    Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said, "If one of you stepped in
    some filth, the dirt will purify his shoes." Related by Abu Dawud. In
    another narration it states, "If one of you steps in some filth with
    his shoes on, the dirt will purify them." Abu Sa'eed reported the
    Prophet, upon whom be peace, saying, "When a person comes to the
    mosque, he should look at his shoes. If he finds any filth on them, he
    should wipe them against the ground and pray in them." (Related by
    Ahmad and Abu Dawud.) Since shoes are repeatedly exposed to filth, it
    is sufficient just to wipe them against the ground. This is similar to
    the case of defecation. In fact, it is stronger than that case, as
    defecation usually occurs only two or three times a day.

    Volume 1, Page 15c: Useful points that are greatly
    needed concerning purification

    Rope used for hanging clothes with impurities on them may afterwards
    be used for hanging pure clothes.

    If a liquid falls on a person and he does not know if it was water or
    urine, he need not inquire about it. If he does inquire, the one who is
    asked need not answer him even if he knows that the liquid is impure.
    In that case, the person need not wash his clothes.

    If a person finds something moist on his body or clothes at night, and
    he does not know what it is, he need not smell it to discover what it
    might be. It is related that 'Umar passed by a gutter (and got wet).
    'Umar's companion asked the owner of the gutter if the water was pure
    or impure. 'Umar told the owner not to answer the question, and went on
    his way.

    Clothes that have street mud on them need not be washed. Reported
    Kamyal ibn Ziyad, "I saw 'Ali wading through the mud, after which he
    entered the mosque and prayed without washing his legs."

    If a person finishes his prayer and sees some impurities on his clothes
    or body of which he was not previously aware, or he was aware of them
    but forgot about them, or he did not forget about them but he was not
    able to remove them, then his prayer is still valid and he need not
    repeat it. This opinion is supported by Allah's statement, "And there
    is no sin for you in the mistakes you make unintentionally." (al-Ahzab
    5). Many of the companions and those of the following generation gave
    this legal verdict.

    If a person can not determine what part of his clothes contain the
    impurity, he should wash the whole garment. This is based on the axiom,
    "If an obligation cannot be fulfilled except by performing another
    related act, then that act also becomes obligatory."

    If a person mixes his pure clothes with his impure clothes (and gets
    confused between them), he should investigate the matter and pray once
    in one of the clothes. This is similar to the question of the exact
    direction of the qiblah. It does not matter if the proportion of pure
    clothes was large or small.

    Volume 1, Page 16: It is not proper for one to carry
    something that has Allah's name upon it while he is going to the

    It is not proper for one to carry something that has Allah's name
    upon it (unless he is afraid of losing it or having it stolen), while
    he is going to the bathrom. Anas related that the Messenger of Allah,
    upon whom be peace, had a ring engraved with Muhammad Rasool-ullah,
    (Muhammad the Messenger of Allah), which he would remove when he went
    to the bathroom. Ibn Hajr says that this hadith is malul (a type of
    weak hadith having a defect) and Abu Dawud says it is m unkar,
    (singularly related by people who are not trustworthy). The first
    portion of the hadith is authentic, however.

    Volume 1, Page 17: He should move and hide himself from
    others while going to the bathroom

    This is especially true in the case of defecation, so others can not
    hear noxious sounds or smell bad odors. Said Jabir, "We were journeying
    with the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, and he would only
    relieve himself when he was out of sight." (This is related by Ibn
    Majah.) Abu Dawud records that, "When he wanted to relieve himself, he
    would go where no one could see him." He also related, "When the
    Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, went out he would go very far

    Volume 1, Page 17a: One should mention the name of
    Allah and seek refuge in Him when entering the privy or removing his
    clothes to relieve himself

    Anas reported that when the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace,
    entered the privy he would say, "In the name of Allah. O Allah! I seek
    refuge in you from male and female noxious beings (devils)." This is
    related by "the group."

    Volume 1, Page 17b: One should not talk when going to
    the bathroom

    One should not respond to a greeting or repeat what the caller to
    prayer is saying. He may speak if there is some necessity (i.e., to
    guide a blind man who fears he may be harmed). If he sneezes, he should
    praise Allah to himself and simply move his lips (without making a
    sound). Ibn 'Umar related that a man passed by the Prophet, upon whom
    be peace, and greeted him while he (the Prophet) was urinating. The
    Prophet did not return his greeting. (This is related by "the group,"
    except for al-Bukhari.) Abu Sa'eed reported that he heard the Messenger
    of Allah, upon whom be peace, say, "Isn't it true that Allah detests
    those who converse while they relieve themselves?" This was related by
    Ahmad, Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah.

    This hadith seems to support the position that it is forbidden to talk.
    Many scholars, however, say that it is only disliked, not forbidden.

    Volume 1, Page 18: One should neither face nor turn his
    back on the qiblah while relieving himself

    Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be
    peace, said, "When one of you relieves himself, he should neither face
    the qiblah nor turn his back on it." This was related by Ahmad and

    The prohibition implies that it is only disliked. As Ibn 'Umar related
    that he once went to Hafsah's home, where he saw the Messenger of Allah
    relieving himself while facing Syria with his back to the Ka'bah. This
    is related by "the group." Some reconciliate these hadith by saying
    that in the desert it is forbidden to face or turn one's back on the
    Ka'bah, while it is permitted in buildings. Said Marwan al-Asghar, "I
    saw 'Umar sitting on his she-camel and facing the qiblah while
    urinating. I said, 'O father of 'Abdurahman ... is this not forbidden?'
    He said, 'Certainly not ... This has been prohibited only in open
    areas. If there is a barricade (or separator) between you and the
    qiblah, there is nothing wrong with it."

    This is related by Abu Dawud, Ibn Khuzaimah and al-Hakim. Its chain is
    hassan as Ibn Hajr said in Fath al-Bari.

    Volume 1, Page 18a: One should seek a soft and low
    piece of ground to protect himself from impurities

    Abu Musa related that the Messenger of Allah came to a low and soft
    part of the ground and urinated. He then said, "When one of you
    urinates, he should choose the proper place to do so."

    This is related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud. One of its narrators is
    unknown, but its meaning is sound.

    Volume 1, Page 18b: One should not use a hole in the

    Qatadah related from 'Abdullah ibn Sarjas who said, "The Messenger
    of Allah forbade urination into a hole." Said Qatadah, "What is
    disliked about urinating into a hole?" Said he, "It is the residence of
    the jinn."

    This hadith is related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i, Abu Dawud, al-Hakim and
    al-Baihaqi. Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn as-Sakin classified it as sahih.

    Volume 1, Page 18c: One should avoid shaded places and
    those places where people walk and gather

    Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be
    peace, said, "Beware of those acts which cause others to curse." They
    asked, "What are those acts?" He said, "Relieving yourself in the
    people's walkways or in their shade." This hadith is related by Ahmad,
    Muslim and Abu Dawud.

    Volume 1, Page 19: One should not urinate in bathing
    places or in still or running water

    'Abdullah ibn Mughaffal narrated that the Prophet said, "None of you
    should urinate in a bathing place and then make ablution in the water.
    The majority of waswas comes from that." This is related by "the five,"
    but the statement, "and then make ablution in it" was only related by
    Ahmad and Abu Dawud. Jabir said the Prophet forbade urinating in still
    as well as running water. (Related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah.)
    In Majma az-Zuwaid it states, "This was related by at-Tabarani, and its
    narrators are trustworthy."

    If there is a drain in the bathing place, it is permissible to urinate
    into it.

    Volume 1, Page 19a: One may not urinate while standing

    If a person can guarantee that no impurities will touch his clothes,
    it is permissible to urinate while standing. Said 'Aishah, "If someone
    relates to you that the Messenger of Allah urinated while standing, do
    not believe him. He only urinated while sitting." This hadith is
    related by "the five," except for Abu Dawud. At-Tirmizhi's comment is,
    "It is the best thing related on this point, and it is the most

    One should not forget that what 'Aishah said is based on the knowledge
    that she had. Huzhaifah relates that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom
    be peace, went to a public garbage dump and urinated while standing.
    Huzhaifah went away, and the Prophet then called him over. The Prophet
    made ablution and wiped over his shoes. This is related by "the group."

    Commenting upon the issue, an-Nawawi says, "To urinate while sitting is
    most desirable in my opinion, but to do so standing is permissible.
    Both acts are confirmed by the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace.

    Volume 1, Page 19b: One must remove any impurities from
    his clothes and body

    To do so, he can use a rock, stone or any other pure matter. One may
    use only water to clean the area, or any combinations of purifying
    agents. 'Aishah reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be
    peace, said, "When one of you goes to relieve himself, he should clean
    himself with three stones." (Related by Ahmad, anNasa'i, Abu Dawud and

    Anas related that the Messenger of Allah would enter the privy, and
    that Anas and another boy would carry the water container and spear for
    him. The Prophet would clean himself with water." (Related by
    al-Bukhari and Muslim.)

    Ibn 'Abbas related that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace,
    passed by two graves and said, "They are being punished. But they are
    not being punished for a great matter (on their part). One of them did
    not clean himself from urine and the other used to spread slander."
    (Related by "the group.")

    Anas also related the Prophet as saying, "Purify yourselves from urine,
    as most punishment in the grave is due to it."

    Volume 1, Page 20: One should not clean himself with his
    right hand

    'Abdurahman ibn Zaid related that Salman was asked, "Your Prophet
    teaches you everything, even how to relieve yourselves?" Salman said,
    "Certainly ... He forbade us from facing the qiblah while doing so,
    from cleaning ourselves with our right hand, and from cleaning
    ourselves with less than three stones. We also should not use an impure
    substance or a bone to clean ourselves." (Related by Muslim, Abu Dawud,
    and at-Tirmizhi.)

    Hafsah reported, "The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, reserved
    his right hand for eating, drinking, putting on his clothes, taking and
    giving. He used his left hand for other actions." (Related by Ahmad,
    Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, Ibn Hibban, al-Hakim and al-Baihaqi).

    Volume 1, Page 20a: One should remove any bad smell
    from his hands after cleaning himself

    Abu Hurairah said, "When the Messenger of Allah upon whom be peace,
    relieved himself, I used to bring him a container of water. He would
    cleanse himself, then rub his hands against the soil." (Related by Abu
    Dawud, an-Nasa'i, al-Baihaqi, and Ibn Majah.)

    Volume 1, Page 20b: One should sprinkle his penis and
    underwear with water after urination

    Make sure that he has cleansed himself. If one finds some dampness
    in his clothes after so doing, he can content himself by saying, "That
    is just water." This is based on the hadith related by al-Hakim ibn
    Sufyan or Sufyan ibn al-Hakim who said, "When the Messenger of Allah,
    upon whom be peace, urinated, he would wash and sprinkle (his penis)."
    In another narration it states, "I saw the Messenger of Allah urinate,
    after which he sprinkled water over his penis." Ibn 'Umar used to
    sprinkle his penis until his underwear became wet.

    Volume 1, Page 20c: Entering the bathroom

    One should enter the bathroom or a privy with his left foot, and
    exit with his right foot, saying: "O Allah! I seek your forgiveness."
    'Aishah related that when the Messenger of Allah left the bathroom, he
    would say this supplication. (Related by "the five," except for
    an-Nasa'i.) What 'Aishah stated is the soundest statement on this
    topic. It is related through a number of weak chains that the Prophet,
    upon whom be peace, used to say, "Praise be to Allah who made the filth
    leave me and who has given me health," and "Praise be to Allah who let
    me enjoy it, kept for me its energy and relieved me of its harm."

    Volume 1, Page 21: Acts that correspond to the Nature of

    Allah has chosen certain acts for all of His prophets and their
    followers to perform. These acts distinguish them from the rest of
    mankind, and are known as sunan al-fitra, (the acts that correspond to
    the nature of mankind).

    Volume 1, Page 21a: Circumcision

    This prevents dirt from getting on one's penis, and also makes it
    easy to keep it clean. For women, it involves cutting the outer portion
    of the clitoris. Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah
    said, "Ibrahim circumcised himself after he was eighty years old."
    (Related by al-Bukhari.) Many scholars say that it is
    obligatory.'ø The Shaf'iyyah maintain that it should be done on
    the seventh day. Says ash-Shaukani, "There is nothing that states
    explicitly its time or indicates that it is obligatory."

    Volume 1, Page 21b: Shaving pubic hairs and pulling out
    underarm hairs

    They are two sunan acts. If the hair is only trimmed or pulled out,
    it will suffice.

    Volume 1, Page 21c: Clipping one's fingernails,
    trimming and shaving his moustache

    Ibn 'Umar related that the Messenger of Allah said, "Differ from the
    polytheists: let your beards (grow)" and shave your moustache."
    (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim). Abu Hurairah reported that the
    Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said, "Five things are part of
    one's fitra: Shaving the pubic hairs, circumcision, trimming the
    moustache, removing the hair under the arms and trimming the nails."
    (Related by "the group.") It does not mention which one would
    specifically fulfill the sunnah. One should make sure that his
    moustache is not so long that food particles, drink and dirt accumulate
    in it. Zaid ibn Arqam related that the Prophet, upon whom be peace,
    said "Whoever does not take (off) some of his moustache is not one of
    us." (Related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i and at-Tirmizhi, who classified it as
    sahih.) It is preferred to cut the pubic hairs, pluck out the underarm
    hairs, cut the nails and trim the moustache on a weekly basis, a
    practice which is most hygenic. If some unnecessary hair is left on the
    body for a longer period of time, it may disturb the person. One may
    leave this action for forty days, but no longer. Said Anas, "The time
    period for us to trim the moustache, cut the nails, pluck out the
    underarm hairs and cut the pubic hairs was forty nights." (Related by
    Ahmad, Abu Dawud and others).

    Volume 1, Page 22: Letting one's beard grow and become

    This is a feature of dignity. It should not be cut so short that it
    appears like a shaved beard, nor should it be left so long that it
    becomes untidy. It is also a sign of manhood. Says al-Bukhari,
    "Whenever Ibn 'Umar made the hajj or 'umrah, he would hold his beard in
    his fist and, whatever exceeded his fist, he would cut off."

    Volume 1, Page 22a: Oiling and combing one's hair

    Abu Hurairah reported the Prophet, upon whom be peace, as saying,
    "Whoever has hair should honor it." (Related by Abu Dawud.)

    Said 'Ata ibn Yasar, "A man came to the Prophet with unkempt hair and
    an untidy beard. The Prophet pointed to him, as if ordering him to
    straighten his hair and beard. He did so and returned. Thereupon the
    Prophet observed, 'Is that not better than one of you coming with his
    hair unkempt, as if he were a devil?"' (Related by Malik.)

    Abu Qatadah related that he had a great amount of hair. He asked the
    Prophet, "O Messenger of Allah, I have lots of hair. Should I comb it?"
    He answered, "Yes ... and honor it." Abu Qatadah used to oil it twice a
    day due to the Prophet's words, "... and honor it."

    Cutting one's hair off is permissible, and so is letting it grow if one
    honors it. Ibn 'Umar narrated that the Prophet, upon whom be peace,
    said, "Shave it all or leave it all." (Related by Ahmad, Muslim, Abu
    Dawud and an-Nasa'i). To shave part of it and leave part of it is
    greatly disliked. Nafa' related from Ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of
    Allah prohibited qiza'. Nafa' asked, "What is qiza' ?" He said, "It is
    to shave off part of the hair of a youth and to leave part." (AlBukhari
    and Muslim.)

    Volume 1, Page 23: Leaving grey hairs in place

    This applies to both men and women. 'Amr ibn Shu'aib related on the
    authority of his father from his grandfather that the Prophet said, "Do
    not pluck the grey hairs as they are a Muslim's light. Never a Muslim
    grows grey in Islam except that Allah writes for him, due to that, a
    good deed. And he raises him a degree. And he erases for him, due to
    that, one of his sins." (Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi,
    an-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah.) And Anas said, "We used to hate that a man
    should pluck out his white hairs from his head or beard." (Related by
    Muslim. )

    Volume 1, Page 23a: Changing the color of grey hair by
    using henna, red dye, yellow dye, and so on

    Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said,
    "The Jews and Christians do not dye, so differ from them." (Related by
    "the group.") Abu Zharr reported that the Messenger of Allah said, "The
    best thing that one can use to change the color of grey hairs is henna
    and katm (a reddish dye)." (Related by "the five.")

    There are some narrations that state that dying is disliked, but it is
    obvious that these narrations conflict with the sunnah and custom. It
    is related from some of the companions that it is better not to dye,
    while others say it is better to do it. Some used a yellow dye, while
    others used henna or katm. Others used saffron, and a group of them
    used a black dye. Ibn Hajr mentioned in Fath al-Bari that az-Zuhri
    said, "We used black dye if our face was youthful, but if wrinkles were
    present and the teeth were gone we would not use it." Said Jabir, "Abu
    Quhafah (Abu Bakr's father) was brought to the Prophet during the
    conquest of Makkah while his head was "white." The Prophet, upon whom
    be peace, said, "Take him to one of his wives and let her change the
    color of his hair with something, but she should avoid (making his
    hair) black." (Related by "the group," except for al-Bukhari and
    at-Tirmizhi). This dealt with a certain incident, and cannot be
    generalized. Furthermore, black would not be proper for someone as old
    as Abu Quhafah.

    Volume 1, Page 24: To use musk and other types of

    These are pleasing to the soul and beautify the atmosphere. Anas
    reported the Messenger of Allah as saying, "Among the things of this
    world, I love women and perfume, and the coolness of my eyes is
    prayer." (Related by Ahmad and an-Nasa'i.) Abu Hurairah reported that
    the Messenger of Allah said, "If someone offers perfume, do not reject
    it, for it is light to carry and has a sweet scent." (Related by
    Muslim, an-Nasa'i and Abu Dawud.) Abu Sa'eed reported that the Prophet
    said about musk, "It is the best of perfumes." (Related by "the group,"
    except for al-Bukhari and Ibn Majah).

    Nafa' narrated that Ibn 'Umar used to burn and inhale a branch called
    aluwah that has a nice smell. He also used camphor. He used to say,
    "This is the way the Messenger of Allah inhaled such scents (that is,
    by burning them.)" (Related by Muslim and an-Nasa'i.)

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