Fiqh Assunah

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  • Fiqh Assunah

  • Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Volume 2: Salatul Jumu'ah (the Friday Prayer)

    Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Volume 2: Salatul Jumu'ah (the Friday Prayer)

    Volume2, Page 125a: The virtues of Jumu'ah, Friday prayer

    Friday (Jumu'ah) is the best day of the week.

    Abu Hurairah reports that the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alehi wasallamsaid: "The best day on which the sun rises is Friday. [On Friday] Adam wascreated and on that day he entered paradise and on that day he was expelledfrom paradise. And the Hour will come to pass on Friday." This is relatedby Muslim, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, and at-Tirmizhi who calls it sahih.

    Abu Lubanah al-Badri relates that the Prophet said: "The most prominentof the days [lit. the leader of the days] is the day of Jumu'ah and the mosthonored in Allah's sight, and it is more honored in Allah's sight than the dayof breaking the fast or the day of sacrifice. It has five significant merits:Allah created Adam on this day; on this day Allah sent Adam down to the earth;on this day, Allah caused Adam to die; on this day, there is a time duringwhich if anyone asks anything of Allah it will be granted to him unless he asksfor something which is forbidden; and on this day, the Hour will beestablished. There are no angels close to Allah or sky or earth or wind ormountain or sea who are not worried concerning the day of Jumu'ah." Thisis related by Ahmad and Ibn Majah. Al-Iraqi says its chain is hasan.

    Volume2, Page 125b: Supplications during Friday

    One should do one's best to make supplications during the last moments (orhours) of Jumu'ah.

    'Abdullah ibn Salam relates: "I said, and the Messenger of Allah wassitting: 'We find in the Book of Allah that on Friday there is an 'hour' inwhich, if a believing slave prays to Allah for something, his prayer is(indeed) accepted and he is granted what ever he prays for.' The Messenger ofAllah pointed toward me and said: 'Or part of an hour.' I said: 'You havespoken the truth: or part of an hour.' I asked: 'What hour is it?' He replied:'The last hour of the day.' I remarked: 'That is not a time of salah?' Heresponded: 'Certainly [it is]; if a believing slave offers salah and then sits,he will not be sitting, save due to the salah, and he will be in salah."'This is related by Ibn Majah.

    Abu Sa'id and Abu Hurairah report that the Messenger of Allah said: "OnJumu'ah there is a time that if a believing slave asks Allah during it for somegood, [Allah will definitely] give it to him, and that time is after the 'asrsalah." This is related by Ahmad. Al-'Iraqi calls it sahih.

    Jabir reports that the Messenger of Allah said: "The day of Jumu'ah hastwelve hours, and during one of the hours, you will not find a Muslim slave [ofAllah] asking Allah for something, but that He will give it to him. Seek it inthe last hour after the 'Asr salah." This is related by anNasa'i, AbuDawud, and by al-Hakim in al-Mustadrak, and he calls it sahih according toMuslim's criteria. Ibn Hajar says that its chain is hasan.

    Abu Salamah ibn 'Abdurrahman reports that some companions of the Prophetgathered and mentioned the "hour on Jumu'ah." They left and did notdiffer on the fact that it is the last hour of Jumu'ah. This is related bySa'id ibn Mansur in his Sunan and al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar calls it sahih.

    Ahmad ibn Hanbal says: "Most of the hadith concerning the hour in whichthe supplication is always responded to state the hour to be after the 'asrprayer, and some state it to be after the sun passes the meridian."

    There is a hadith recorded by Muslim and Abu Dawud which states that AbuMusa heard the Messenger of Allah say concerning the special hour on Jumu'ah:"It is between the time that the imam sits [i.e., upon the pulpit] and thetime that the salah is completed." All the same, this particular hadith isdefective because its chain is broken and it is mudtarib.

    Volume2, Page 126: Making many prayers and salutations upon the Prophet sallallahualehi wasallam during the night and the day of Jumu'ah

    Aus ibn Aus reports that the Prophet said: "The most virtuous of yourdays is Jumu'ah. On that day, Adam was created and on that day he died, (onthat day) the horn will be blown and the people will be dumbfounded! Increaseyour prayers upon me as your prayers upon me will be presented to me." Thepeople said: "O Messenger of Allah, how will our prayers be presented toyou when you have passed away?" He said: "Allah has prohibited theearth from eating the bodies of the Prophets." This is related by thefive, except for at-Tirmizhi.

    Ibn al-Qayyim says: "It is preferred to pray for (Allah's blessings onthe Prophet during the day and night of Jumu'ah as the Prophet said: 'Make manyprayers upon me during the day of Friday and the night of Friday.' TheMessenger of Allah is the leader of mankind, and Jumu'ah is the best of thedays of the week. Prayers upon him during that day are a privilege [hedeserves] which belongs to no other. This act also has another wisdom to it andthat is that all of the good that has passed onto this [Muslim] ummah, in thislife and the hereafter, has passed through him. Allah has gathered the good ofthis life and the next life for this ummah, and the greatest honor and successwill be granted to them on Friday. On that day, they will be granted their housesand palaces in paradise and that is the day they will be given more when theyenter paradise. It is a day of celebration for them in this life. It is also aday in which Allah fulfills their needs and answers their prayers and requestsin this world. They are aware of all of that and are able to attain it becauseof the Prophet and it is through him [that they received these teachings];therefore, in gratitude and appreciation for the great blessings we receivedthrough him, we should make many prayers upon him during the day and night ofJumu 'ah."

    Volume2, Page 127: Recitation of Surah al-Kahf

    It is preferred to recite surah al-Kahf during the day and night of Jumu'ah.

    Abu Sa'id al-Khudri reports that the Prophet said: "Whoever recitesSurah al-Kahf on Jumu'ah will have illumination from the light from one Jumu'ahto the next." This is related by an-Nasa'i, al-Baihaqi, and alHakim.

    Ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet said: "Whoever recites Surah al-Kahfon Jumu'ah will be blessed with a light that will rise from underneath his feetto the peak of the sky. This will be a light for him on the Day ofResurrection, and he will be forgiven for what is between the Jumu'ah [and thenext] Jumu'ah." This is related by Ibn Mardwwiyah with a faultless chain.

    Volume2, Page 127a: It is disliked to raise one's voice while reciting al-Kahf in themosque on Friday

    Shaikh Muhammad 'Abdu issued a verdict that mentioned reciting Surah al-Kahfaloud among the many disliked matters on Friday. He also mentioned the following:singling out Friday as a day of fasting, singling out its night as a night toperform salatul tahajjud, reciting Surah al-Kahf during it with a specificmanner of melody which disturbs those who are offering salah, while the peoplein the mosque are not listening because of their being engaged in conversationwith others. Therefore, one should be careful about such a recital.

    Volume2, Page 128: Performing ghusl, beautifying one's self, using the miswak, andusing perfume for any gathering and especially for Salatul Jumu'ah

    It is preferred for anyone - man or woman, an elderly or young person, atraveler or a resident - who desires to attend the salatul Jumu'ah or anygathering of the people, to cleanse and to wear best attire. One should performghusl, put on one's finest clothing, apply perfume, and to brush one's teeth.The following hadith are recorded on this matter:

    Abu Sa'id reports that the Prophet said: "Every Muslim should have aghusl on Friday and wear his best clothing, and if he has perfume, he shoulduse it." This is related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim.

    Ibn Salam reports that he heard the Prophet say, while he was upon thepulpit on Friday: "It would do no [harm] to anyone if he were to buy twogowns for Friday other than his work clothes." This is related by AbuDawud and Ibn Majah.

    Salman al-Farsi reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said:"A man who performs ghusl on Friday, purifies [himself] what he can anduses dye [for his hair] or perfumes himself in his house, goes to the mosque,and does not cause separation between two people [who are already seated],prays what Allah has prescribed for him, and then listens quietly while theimam speaks, all his sins between that Friday and the next Friday will be forgiven."This is related by Ahmad and al-Bukhari, while Abu Hurairah used to say:"And for three more days as for every good deed Allah grants tenfoldreward." The sins mentioned in this hadith are the minor sins as Ibn Majahrecorded, on the authority of Abu Hurairah in the words: "For one who hasnot committed major sins."

    Ahmad records, with a sahih chain, that the Prophet said: "It isobligatory upon every Muslim to perform ghusl, apply purfume and use the miswakon Jumu'ah.

    Abu Hurairah reports that one Friday the Prophet said: "O gathering ofMuslims, Allah has made this day an 'id for you, so make ghusl and use themiswak." This is related by at-Tabarani in al-Ausat and al-Kabir with achain whose narrators are trustworthy.

    Volume2, Page 129: Going early to Salatul Jumu'ah

    It is preferred for one to go early to the salatul Jumu'ah, unless he is theimam. 'Alqamah says: "I went with 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud to the mosque andwe found that three people had arrived there before us. [Ibn Mas'ud] said: 'Thefourth of four, and the fourth of four is not far from Allah, for I have heardthe Messenger of Allah say: "The people will be seated on the day ofresurrection according to how they came to the salatul Jumu'ah: the first, thenthe second, then the third, then the fourth and the fourth of four is not farfrom Allah."' This is related by Ibn Majah and al-Munzhiri.

    Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet said: "Whoever makes ghusl onJumu'ah like the ghusl one makes due to sexual defilement, and then goes to themosque, it will be as if he had sacrificed a camel. If he goes during thesecond hour, it will be as if he had sacrificed a cow. If he goes during thethird hour, it will be as if he had sacrificed a horned lamb. If he goes duringthe fourth hour, it will be as if he had sacrificed a hen. And if he goesduring the fifth hour, it will be as if he had sacrificed (something like) anegg. When the imam comes, the angels will be present to listen to therememberance." This is related by the group, save Ibn Majah.

    Ash-Shaf'i and a number of scholars are of the opinion that the"hours" refer to the hours of the day; therefore, it is preferred forthe people to start attending the mosque right after dawn. Malik is of theopinion that it refers to portions of the hour before the sun passes itsmeridian and afterward. Some hold that it refers to portions of the hour beforethe sun passes its meridian. Ibn Rushd says: "That is the most apparentmeaning as going [to the mosque] after the sun passes the meridian is obligatory."

    Volume2, Page 129a: Stepping over others' necks in the mosque

    At-Tirmizhi reports that the people of knowledge dislike that one should"step over the necks of the people" on Jumu'ah and they were verystrict in this regard. 'Abdullah ibn Busr says: "A man came and he wasstepping over the necks of the people while the Prophet was delivering khutbahof Jumu'ah. He said to him: 'Sit down. You have harmed the people and have comelate."' This is related by Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, Ahmad, and Ibn Khuzaimah,and others call it sahih.

    This ruling does not apply to the imam or one who finds an opening andcannot reach it, save by going over the people. If one wants to return to hisplace after leaving it due to some necessity, he may do so on the conditionthat he does not harm the people. 'Uqbah ibn al-Harith relates: "I prayedthe 'asr in Medinah behind the Prophet and then he stood and hurried off,stepping over the people, to go to some of the apartments of his wives. Thepeople were afraid because of his rushing away in this manner. When he came outand found them amazed at leaving them in such a hurry, he said: 'I rememberedsome gold that was in my possession and I hated that it should remain with me,so I ordered it to be distributed."' This is related by al-Bukhari andan-Nasa'i.

    And when he returned he would make a similar supplication, but instead ofsaying: "from seeing harm having come to our property and family," hewould mention family first and then property. This is related by Ahmad and Muslim.

    Volume2, Page 130: Nawafl before salatul Jumu'ah

    It is a sunnah to offer supererogatory prayers before al-Jumu'ah until theimam arrives. After the imam's arrival, one should no longer offer any salah,save for the prayer of greeting the mosque (tahayyatul masjid) which may beperformed quickly during the khutbah unless one comes at the end of the khutbahand would not have the time [i.e., before the actual salah begins] to performtahayyatul masjid.

    Ibn 'Umar used to perform a long prayer before al-Jumu'ah and then tworak'at after it, and he said that the Prophet used to do so. This is related byAbu Dawud.

    Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said:"Whoever makes ghusl on the day of Jumu'ah and then goes to the mosque andprays what has been prescribed for him, and remains quiet while the imamdelivers the khutbah, and then prays with the imam, he will have forgiven forhim what is between that Jumu'ah and the next and an additional threedays." This is related by Muslim.

    Jabir reports that a man came to the mosque on Jumu'ah while the Prophet wasdelivering the khutbah. The Prophet inquired of him: "Did you offer thesalah?" The man replied: "No!" He told him: "Pray tworak'at." This is related by the group. In one narration it states: "Ifone of you comes to the mosque on the day of Jumu'ah and the imam is deliveringthe khutbah, he should pray two rak'at and make them quick." This isrelated by Ahmad, Muslim, and Abu Dawud. In another narration, it is stated:"If one of you comes to the mosque on the day of Jumu'ah and the imam hasalready arrived, he should offer two rak'at." This is related byal-Bukhari and Muslim.

    Volume2, Page 130a: Feeling drowsy while in the mosque

    It is preferred for one who is in the mosque to change place if he feelssleepy. The movement may remove some of his drowsiness and help wake him up.This rule is true for Fridays and any other day.

    Ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Ifone of you becomes sleepy while he is in the mosque, he should move from hisplace to another place." This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, al-Baihaqi,and at-Tirmizhi who calls it hasan sahih.

    Volume2, Page 131: The Friday prayer as an obligation

    The scholars are in agreement that salatul Jumu'ah is an individualobligation and it is two rak'at. Allah says in the Qur'an: "O you whobelieve, when the call for the salah of Jumu'ah is proclaimed, hasten unto theremembrance of Allah, and leave off business (and trading). That is best foryou if you but knew."

    The obligatory nature of salatul Jumu'ah is also obvious from the hadithrecorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said:"We are the last [of the people to come] but the first on the day ofresurrection. They received their books before us and we got ours after them.This day was obligatory upon them, but they differed concerning it, and Allahguided us. The people, therefore, follow us: the Jews tomorrow and theChristians the day after tomorrow."

    Ibn Mas'ud reports that the Prophet noticed some people staying away fromal-Jumu'ah and said: "I had the notion to order someone to lead the peoplein prayer, and then to go and burn the houses of those who stayed away fromal-Jumu'ah." This is related by Ahmad and Muslim.

    Abu Hurairah and Ibn 'Umar report that they heard the Prophet sallallahualehi wasallam say: "Those who are not attending the Friday salah shouldchange their ways; otherwise, Allah, the Exalted, will seal their hearts andthey will be reckoned the heedless." This is related by Muslim, and byAhmad and an-Nasa'i from ibn 'Umar and ibn 'Abbas.

    Abu al-Ja'd ad-Damari reports that the Prophet said: "Whoever missesthree Friday prayers in a row out of negligence will have a seal put over hisheart by Allah." This is related by the five, and Ahmad and Ibn Majah havesomething similar from Jabir, while Ibn as-Sakin has graded it to be sahih.

    Volume2, Page 131a: Upon whom salatul Jumu'ah is obligatory

    Salatul Jumu'ah is an obligation upon every free, adult, sane, residentMuslim who has the ability to attend the salah and does not have a valid excuseto miss it. Salatul Jumu'ah, however, is not obligatory on the following:

    -1- Women and children. Concerning this category there is no difference ofopinion.

    -2- The person who is ill and faces hardship if he goes to the mosque, orwho fears that his illness will be increased by going to the mosque, or whoserecovery will be delayed. This also includes the person who is nursing a veryill person if, especiallay, the ill person cannot manage in the absence of thenursing person.

    Tariq ibn Shihab reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said:"Al-Jumu'ah is a duty upon every Muslim in the community, save four: aslave, or a woman, or a child, or a person who is ill." An-Nawawi saysthat its chain is sahih according to the conditions set by al-Bukhari andMuslim. Ibn Hajr says that more than one person has graded it sahih.

    -3- For the traveler, even if he is staying at a certain place during thetime of the beginning of salatul Jumu'ah, it is not obligatory. This is basedon the fact that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam traveled and did notperform the salatul Jumu'ah but only prayed the zuhr and 'asr together duringthe time of the zuhr prayers. The caliphs after him and others also acted in a similarmanner.

    -4- One who is in debt and cannot repay his debt and therefore fears that hewill be imprisoned, and one who fears that he will be harmed by an oppressiveruler: Ibn 'Abbas reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said:"Whoever hears the call to the salah and does not respond to it [i.e.,bycoming to the salah], there will be no prayer for him unless he has anexcuse." The people inquired: "O Messenger of Allah, what is a[valid] excuse?" He answered: "Fear or illness." This is relatedby Abu Dawud with a sahih chain.

    -5- Environmental restraints like rain, mud, extreme cold, and so on. Ibn'Abbas said to the mu'azhzhin on a rainy day: "When you say 'I testifythat Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah,' do not say 'Come to the prayer,' butsay 'Pray in your houses."' The people objected to that and he told them:"One better than me did so [the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam].Al-Jumu'ah is an obligation but I dislike that you should go out walking in themud and slush." Abi Malih reports that his father had witnessed the day ofJumu'ah with the Prophet and it was raining and the people were troubled bytheir shoes so he ordered them to pray in their stopping places. This isrelated by Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah.

    All of these people are not obliged to pray the Friday salah although theyare obliged to pray the zuhr. Should one of them pray salatul Jumu'ah, it willstill be valid for him or her and he will no longer be obliged to pray thezuhr. And the women during the time of the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam,attended the mosque and used to pray al-Jumu'ah with him.

    Volume2, Page 132: The Time of the Salatul Jumu'ah

    The majority of the companions and successors were of the opinion that thetime of al-Jumu'ah is the same as that of the zuhr. Ahmad, al-Bukhari, AbuDawud, at-Tirmizhi, and alBaihaqi record from Anas that the Prophet sallallahualehi wasallam would pray al-Jumu'ah when the sun had passed its meridian.Ahmad and Muslim record that Salamah ibn al-Akua' said: "We would praysalatul Jumu'ah with the Prophet when the sun had passed the meridian, and whenwe returned [from the salah], we would be following our shadow."Al-Bukhari says: "The time of al-Jumu'ah is when the sun passes itsmeridian." Similar narrations have been recorded from 'Umar, 'Ali,an-Nu'man ibn Bashir, and 'Umar ibn Harith. Ash-Shaf'i says: "The Prophetsallallahu alehi wasallam, Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthman, and the imams after themall prayed the Jumu'ah when the sun had passed its zenith."

    The scholars of the Hanbali school and Ishaq are of the opinion that thetime for al-Jumu'ah is from the beginning of the time for salatul 'id to theend of the time for the zuhr. They base their opinion on Ahmad, Muslim, andan-Nasa'i who record from Jabir: "The Prophet would pray alJumu'ah andthen we would take our camels to rest until the sun passed its zenith."This hadith clearly states that they prayed al-Jumu'ah before the sun passedthe meridian. They also cited as proof the hadith of 'Abdullah ibn Saidan as-Salmiwho said: "We prayed al-Jumu'ah with Abu Bakr, and his khutbah and salahwere before noon. Then we prayed with 'Uthman and his khutbah and salah lasteduntil after the sun had passed the meridian, and no one scolded either forit." This is related by Ahmad, who cites it as a proof, and byad-Daraqutni. Ahmad adds: "And [something] similar to that has beenrelated from ibn Mas'ud, Jabir, Sa'id, and Mu'awiyyah. They all prayed beforethe sun passed the meridian and no one objected to what they did, and that wasthe consensus. The majority of the scholars, however, interpret the hadith ofJabir as implying that one should pray the salah early in its time, when thesun has passed the meridian, and not wait until the weather gets cool. Theprayer and the resting of the camels was right after the sun passed themeridian. As to the report from 'Abdullah ibn Saidan, these scholars consdierit weak. Ibn Hajar writes about him: 'He is one of the major tabi'in [i.e., ofthe generation after the companions], and his integrity is notwell-established. 'Adi says: "He is somewhat majhul, i.e. unknown as atrustworthy person." Bukhari observes. "His report is not to betrusted, especially when he is contradicted by people who are more credible(qawi) than him as Ibn abi Shaibah relates from Suwaid ibn Ghaflah that thelater prayed with Abu Bakr and 'Umar after the sun had passed the meridian andits chain is strong. "'

    Volume2, Page 133: The number of people required for al-Jumu'ah

    There is no dispute among the scholars that a congregation is a necessarycondition for the validity of al-Jumu'ah. This is based on the hadith of Tariqibn Shihab who reports that the Prophet said: "Al-Jumu 'ah is anobligation ( wajib) upon every Muslim in the community." However, thescholars do differ on how many people are required for al-Jumu'ah. There arefifteen different opinions on this question and they are mentioned by Ibn Hajarin Fath al-Bari. The strongest opinion is that salatul Jumu'ah is valid ifthere are two or more people present since the Prophet is reported to havesaid: "Two or more constitute a congregation."

    Ash-Shaukani says: 'The other prayers are considered to be made incongregation if there are two people present. The same applies to Jumu'ahsalah, unless there is a reason for it to be different. There is no evidence toshow that [for the purpose of the congregation] its number should be largerthan that for the other prayers. 'Abdul Haqq says: 'There is no confirmedhadith on the number of people needed for al-Jumu'ah.' Similarly, as-Sayutiholds: 'There is no confirmed hadith which states a particular number [for theJumu'ah salah].'" This is also the opinion of at-Tabari, Dawud,an-Nakha'i, and Ibn Hazm.

    Volume2, Page 134: The place for al-Jumu'ah

    It is valid to perform the Jumu'ah salah in any country, city, mosque, anybuilding in a city, or in any space in a city as it also is valid to have itperformed in more than one place. 'Umar wrote the following to the people ofBahrain: "Offer the Jumu'ah salah wherever you may be." This isrelated by Ibn abi Shaibah. Ahmad holds its chain to be good. This includesboth the cities and countryside.

    Ibn 'Abbas says: "The first Friday salah that was performed in Islam,after the Friday salah in the mosque of the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alehiwasallam in Medinah, was in Jawa'i, a village in Bahrain." This is relatedby al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud.

    Al-Laith ibn Sa'd reports that the people of Egypt and of the surroundingsea-shore would perform the Jumu'ah salah during the time of 'Umar and 'Uthmanaccording to their orders. Some of the companions of the Prophet attendedjumu'ah prayer with them. Ibn 'Umar saw the people in the areas between Makkahand Medinah performing the Jumu'ah prayers, and he did not object to theiraction. This is related by 'Abdurrazzaq with a sahih chain.

    Volume2, Page 134a: Conditions Stipulated By The Jurists for the Friday Prayer

    Some of the conditions under which the jumu'ah salah becomes obligatory havealready been mentioned (i.e., it is obligatory for a free, sane, adult maleresident who does not have a valid excuse which would excuse him from attendingthe prayer). It was also mentioned that a congregation is a condition for theFriday salah. This is what the sunnah of the Prophet teaches us and what Allahholds us responsible for. Concerning the other stipulations which some of thejurists stipulate for the Jumu'ah salah, none of them has any basis to which wemay refer, or any evidence to support it. It will be sufficient here to simplyquote the author of ar-Raudah anNadiyah who writes:

    [The Friday salah] is like the rest of the prayers and there is nothing init that differs from them, unless there is some evidence to the contrary. Thisstatement refutes those who stipulate, as a necessary conditions for Fridayprayer, the presence of a well-established imam and a congregational mosque inthe area as well as a certain number of people attending the congregationalprayer. There is no evidence whatever that those conditions are even preferred- not to speak of being obligatory, or for that matter, being a necessarycondition for the Friday salah. If two people pray the Jumu'ah in a place wherethere is no one else but them, they would have performed their prescribed duty.If one of them delivers the khutbah, they would be following what is sunnah;and if they leave the khutbah, then it is only the sunnah which they haveneglected, (not something which was obligatory). But for the hadith of Tariqibn Shihab which clearly requires every Muslim to offer it in congregation andthe fact that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam always performed it in acongregation, offering it individually, like the rest of the prayers, wouldhave been quite acceptable. Concerning the statement "from four people tothe ruler of the area," that is certainly not the Prophet's statement norof any of his companions... In fact, [this is] a statement of al-Hassanal-Basri. As to various statements and psuedojuristic opinions concerning thisnoble worship, the Friday prayer, which Allah has prescribed once a week as oneof the signs of Islam, a little consideration should suffice to show theirsuperfluity and error. One of these is the amazing statement that khutbah isequivalent to two rak'at of salah, and if one misses it, then his jumu'ah isnot valid. They seem to be quite ignorant of what has been related from theProphet through a number of chains which support each other that "if aperson misses one rak'ah, then he is to perform another rak'ah and his salahwould be completed." Have not other ahadith reached them that are valid insuch matters? Some say that one cannot perform the Jumu'ah unless there arethree people with the imam and others hold that four people are needed, whileyet others stipulate seven people! Still others say nine, and some thinktwelve, twenty, thirty, and there are even some who think forty, fifty,seventy, and every number that is between those numbers!

    Some hold that many people have to be present without specifying a particularnumber, while others state that al-Jumu'ah may only be performed in a city inwhich there is a "congregational mosque." Some are convinced thatthere have to be so many thousand people living in the area. Some hold thatthere has to be a congregational mosque and a public restroom. Yet otherspropose that the prayer is not obligatory unless there is a well-known andestablished imam; if such an imam cannot be found or if his credibility isdoubtful, then the Friday salah is neither obligatory nor legitimate....No suchstatement can be found [in the book of Allah or in the sunnah] to support whatthey claim to be the conditions or prerequisites of the Jumu'ah... Whoevercomes with such gibberish must be refuted for the only criterion is the Book ofAllah and the Sunnah of His Messenger. As Allah says in the Qur'an: "Ifyou dispute concerning any matter, refer it to Allah and the Messenger";"The answer of the believers, when summoned to Allah and His Messenger, inorder that he may judge between them is no other than this: they say: "Wehear and we obey"; "But no, by thy Lord, they can have no (real)faith, until they make thee judge in all disputes between them, and find intheir souls no resistance against thy decisions, but accept them with the fullestconviction." Those verses and others similar to them are the clearestevidence that one must return to the rule of Allah and His Messenger if thereis any dispute. The rule of Allah is the Book of Allah. The rule of theMessenger, after his passing away, is his sunnah and nothing other than that.Also, Allah did not endow any of his slaves - even if he reaches the highestdegree of knowledge and has accumulated what no one else has - with the rightto make any statement concerning this religion without any authority from theBook or the Sunnah. Likewise, if a mujtahid (jurisconsult) should take libertyof proposing an opinion without substantiating it, then it is not permissiblefor anyone to follow him in that, regardless of who he may be. I, as Allah knows,am always greatly astonished by this type of writers and their writings whichsupposedly provide guidance in one's creed and practice but which are filledwith gibberish. This is not limited to only some of the schools among thedifferent schools of law, or only certain areas from among the different areas,or only certain eras from among all of the eras [it is found in all of theseschools of law, areas, and eras]! In fact, the later people follow the earlierpeople [in such things] as if they were following the umm al-kitab [mother ofthe Book], although, [they follow] distorted teachings.

    Volume2, Page 137: Ruling concerning khutbah

    The majority of the people of knowledge are of the opinion that khutbahtulJumu'ah is obligatory and they support this by the confirmed hadith which statethat the Prophet always made the khutbah with the Jumu'ah. In their supportthey also quote the saying of the Prophet: "Pray as you see me pray,"and the Qur'anic verse: "O you who believe, when the call is proclaimedfor salatul jumu'ah, hasten unto the remembrance of Allah." This versecontains an order to hasten unto the remembrance, which implies it isobligatory, and (the scholars) interpret the remembrance of Allah to includethe khutbatul Jumu'ah. AshShaukani refutes the first argument by saying thathadith simply states the action of the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam anddoes not necessarily prove that such an action is obligatory. As to the verse,he regards it as simply a command to be present at the salah which isobligatory and excludes khutbah... Regarding their argument relating to thecommandment to "hasten unto the rememberance of Allah," he says itrefers to salah only, which is the real cause for making haste. There is,however, an agreement that the Friday salah is obligatory while there is adispute over whether or not the khutbah is obligatory. Ash-Shaukani concludesby saying that apparently the correct view is the one held by al-Hassanal-Basri, Dawud az-Zahiri and al-Juwaini, that the khutbah is only a highlyrecommended act.

    Volume2, Page 137a: The greeting of the imam

    The imam should greet the people when he comes upon the pulpit, followed bythe azhan which is to be made when he sits. The imam should face the peopleduring the azhan.

    Jabir reports that when the Prophet mounted the pulpit, he would greet thepeople. This is related by Ibn Majah and in its chain is Ibn Lahiya, andal-Athram has recorded it in his Sunnan from ash-Sha'biy, on the authority ofthe Prophtet, in mursal form. Ata' and others also reported in mursal form thatwhen the Prophet walked to the top of the pulpit, he would turn to the peopleand say: "Peace be upon you." According to ashSha'biy: "Abu Bakrand 'Umar used to do that [also]."

    As-Sa'ib ibn Yazid informs: "The first azhan to salah made on the dayof Jumu'ah was made when the imam sat upon the pulpit during the time of theProphet, Abu Bakr, and 'Umar. Then, during the time of 'Uthman, since therewere many people, he instituted a third azhan outside the mosque. The Prophetonly had one mu'azhzhin." This is related by alBukhari, an-Nasa'i, and AbuDawud. In another narration, it is stated: "During the time of 'Uthman,there were many people, so 'Uthman ordered the people to make a third call tosalah on the day of Jumu'ah, outside of the mosque, and that practice hascontinued."

    Ahmad and an-Nasa'i record: "Bilal would make the azhan to salah whenthe Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam sat upon the pulpit, and he would makethe iqamah when the Prophet came down from the pulpit."

    'Adi ibn-Thabit relates from his father on the authority of his grandfatherwho said: "When the Prophet ascended the pulpit, he would face hiscompanions." This is related by Ibn Majah. Concerning this latter hadilh,although there is some doubt about it, at-Tirmizhi says: "The people ofknowledge from among the companions and others follow that and they prefer thatthe imam face the people when delivering the khutbah. "

    Volume2, Page 138: Contents of the khutbah

    It is preferred that the Friday khutbah include praises of Allah, theExalted, prayers upon the Prophet, admonitions, and Qur'anic recitations.

    Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wassallam said:"Every speech that does not begin with the praises of Allah isdefective." This is related by Abu Dawud. Ahmad has something similar toit.

    In another version, it is stated: "The Friday khutbah that does notcontain the testimony ["There is no God except Allah, and Muhammad is HisMessenger] is like the defective hand." This is related by Ahmad, AbuDawud, and at-Tirmizhi.

    Ibn Mas'ud reports that the Prophet would say in his opening testimony:"All praise be to Allah, we seek His aid and we seek His forgiveness andwe seek refuge in Allah from the evil of our souls. Whomever Allah guides, noone will be able to mislead him. Whoever He leaves astray will have no guidancefor him. And I testify that there is no God except Allah and that Muhammad isHis slave and His Messenger whom He sent with the truth and as a warner beforethe Hour. Whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger will be guided aright, andwhoever disobeys them will only harm his own self and he will not harm Allah,the Exalted, at all."

    Ibn Shihab was asked about the Prophet's opening testimony during his khutbahon the day of Jumu'ah, and he said something similar to that except that hestated: "Whoever disobeys them has gone astray." Abu Dawud relatedboth of these reports.

    Jabir ibn Samurah says: "The Messenger of Allah would deliver hiskhutbah standing, would sit in between the two khutbahs, would recite someverses, and would remind the people [about Allah]." This is related by thegroup, save al-Bukhari and at-Tirmizhi.

    The obligatory nature of salatul Jumu'ah is also obvious from the hadithrecorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said:"We are the last [of the people to come] but the first on the day ofresurrection. They received their books before us and we got ours after them.This day was obligatory upon them, but they differed concerning it, and Allahguided us. The people, therefore, follow us: the Jews tomorrow and theChristians the day after tomorrow."

    Jabir also related that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would not makehis admonitions on Friday too long, but give a very short khutbah. This isrelated by Abu Dawud.

    Umm Hisham bint Harithah ibn an-Nu'man says: "I learnt [Surah] Qaf ofthe Glorious Qur'an from the Prophet for he recited it upon the pulpit everyFriday when he addressed the people." This is related by Ahmad, Muslim,an-Nasa' i, and Abu Dawud .

    Ya'la ibn Umayyah reports that he heard the Prophet recite, while on thepulpit: "And they cry: O Malik!..." (az-Zukhruf 77). This is relatedby al-Bukhari and Muslim.

    Ibn Majah records from Ubayy that the Messenger of Allah recited:"Blessed is He..." [Surah al-Mulk] on Friday while he was standing.In ar-Raudah an-Nadiyah, it is stated: "Thus the required khutbah, interms of Islamic law, should be modeled after the Prophet's khutbah exhortingpeople to do good and warning them against dire consequences of the evil. Thisis the spirit of the address which the Islamic law has instituted. As to theother contents of the khutbah, like praising Allah, saying prayers upon HisMessengers or reciting a portion of the Qur'an, none of these is its mainpurpose, which is to admonish people... It has been customary among the Muslims[in the light of the sunnah] that if one wanted to make some sort ofproclamation, he would begin with praises of Allah and prayers upon HisProphet, or something of that nature. Still, that is not the purpose of thekhutbah; indeed, the purpose is that which is said after praises of Allah andprayers for the prophet. If a person delivers a khutbah and confines it to onlypraising Allah and saying prayers upon the Prophet, his khutbah would hardly beacceptable. Any person with common sense could understand that.

    It is the admonitary aspect of the Friday khutbah which the hadithemphasise, and if a khatib makes an admonition, he fulfills the purpose ofshari'ah; if he precedes his khutbah with praises of Allah and prayers upon theProphet and during his admonitions he uses Qur'anic verses, then he does it ina complete and satisfactory manner."

    Volume2, Page 139: Posture during and between the khutbahs

    It is proper for the imam to stand for the two khutbas and to sit for ashort while in between them.

    Ibn 'Umar said: "When the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam woulddeliver the Khutbatul Jumu'ah, he did so standing, and then he would sit, andthen he would stand [again, for the second khutbah] as the people dotoday." This is related by the group.

    Jabir ibn-Samura said: "The Prophet would deliver the khutbah whilestanding, and then he would sit, and then he would stand and speak again.Whoever says that he gave the khutbah while sitting has lied. Verily, I prayedwith him more than two thousand prayers [including the five dailyprayers]." This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and Abu Dawud.

    Ibn abi-Shaibah records that Tawus said: "The Prophet gave the khutbahwhile standing and so did Abu Bakr, 'Umar, and 'Uthman. The first one to givekhutbah while sitting upon the pulpit was Mu'awiyyah," Ibn abiShaibah alsorecords from ash-Sha'biy that Mu'awiyyah used to deliver the khutbah whilesitting, when he became overweight. Some of the scholars say that it isobligatory to deliver the khutbah while standing and it is also obligatory tosit in between the two khutbahs. They cite the example of the Prophet and hiscompanions who always did so; however, the fact that they consistentlyperformed an act is not sufficient to prove that it is fard (obligatory) .

    Volume2, Page 140: It is preferred to raise one's voice, to keep the khutbah short,and to the point

    Ammar ibn Yasir reports that he heard the Messenger of Allah say:"Prolonging salah and shortening one's khutbah is a sign of one'sunderstanding of the religion. So, prolong the prayer and shorten thekhutbah." This is related by Ahmad and Muslim. Shortening the khutbah andprolonging one's salah shows one's understanding of religion, for such a personis able to comprehend and express much in a few words.

    Jabir ibn Samurah says: "The Prophet's salah was of a moderate lengthand so was his khutbah." This is related by the group, save al-Bukhari andAbu Dawud.

    'Abdullah ibn abi Aufa reports: "The salah of the Messenger of Allahwas long and his khutba.i was short." This is related by an-Nasa'i with asahih chain.

    Jabir informs: "When the Prophet delivered the khutbah, his eyes becamered, his voice rose, and his anger increased as if giving a warning to theenemy." This is related by Muslim and Ibn Majah.

    An-Nawawi says: "It is preferred for the khutbah to be in an eloquentand proper Arabic, and it should be an organized speech that the people canunderstand. It should not be a speech, which is over the heads of the people,nor should it be shallow or contain foul language as that would defeat itspurpose. Its words should be chosen carefully to make them attractive andmeaningful."

    Giving his views on the subject, Ibn al-Qayyim says: "The khutbah ofthe Prophet reinforced the fundamental articles of faith, like belief in Allah,the Exalted, His angels, His books, His messengers, and the meeting with Him.He would mention the paradise and the hellfire and what Allah, the Exalted, haspromised to His devoted servants and the people who obey Him and what Allah haspromised to His enemies and the miscreant. While listening to his khutbah, thehearts would be filled with belief in Allah, His oneness, and His majesty. Hiskhutbahs were not like speeches of those who speak only of matters of concernof common folk, lamenting earthly life and frightening people of theapproaching death. Such speeches cannot inspire faith in Allah or strengthenbelief in His oneness or move people by allusion to His mighty works inhistory, nor can they kindle in hearts intense love for Allah, making thelisteners look forward eagerly to the time they will meet Him! The people whohear such speeches gain no benefit at all, except that they will die and thattheir wealth will be distributed and their bodies will be turned to dust. Woeto such poets, what sort of faith is fostered by such sermons, and what sort oftawhid do they teach or knowledge disseminate? If we study the khutbahs of theProphet sallallahu alehi wasallam and his companions, we find them embued withperspicuous guidance, tawhid, attributes of Allah, explaining the basicarticles of the faith, inviting people to Allah, and drawing their attention toHis providential care that makes Him so beloved to His slaves. His khutbahsreferred to Allah's dealings with others in the past so as to wam his listenersagainst His wrath and exhort them to remember Him, thank Him and win Hispleasure and love. Those who heard these khutbahs were inspired with the loveof Allah and they looked forward eagerly to meeting their Lord. As time wentby, the example of the Prophet was forgotten and other things prevailed. Themain purpose of the khutbah was forgotten. The eloquent and nice words thatmoved the hearts became rare in speeches. The main thrust of the khutbah wasneglected. The hearts were no longer touched and the basic purpose of thekhutbah was lost."

    Volume2, Page 141: The imam interrupting his khutbah for some reason

    Abu Hurairah reports: "The Prophet was delivering a khutbah andal-Hassan and al-Hussain [his grandsons] came and they were wearing two redshirts and they were tripping while walking. The Prophet came down from thepulpit and picked them up and placed them in front of himself, and then hesaid: 'Allah and His Messenger have told the truth. Verily, your wealth andchildren are a trial. I looked to these two children walking and tripping, andI could not be patient, so I cut off my khutbah and went to pick themup."' This is related by the five.

    Abu Rifah al-'Adwi says: "I went to the Prophet while he was deliveringa khutbah, and I said: 'O Messenger of Allah, this strange man has come to askabout his religion as he does not know what his religion is.' The Prophetturned to me and left his speech, he came to me and he was given a wooden chairwith four iron legs, and he started to teach me what Allah had taught him andthen he went back to complete his khutbah." This is related by Muslim andan-Nasa'i.

    Ibn al-Qayyim writes: "The Prophet would interrupt his khutbah due tosome reason, or to respond to a question from some of his companions.

    Sometimes he would descend from the pulpit due to some need and then returnand complete his khutbah, as he did when he picked up al-Hassan and al-Hussain.He took them and then returned with them to the pulpit. Sometimes he wouldinterrupt his khutbah to say things to certain people, [e.g.,] 'Sit, so andso,' 'Pray, so and so.' [Sometimes] he ordered them to take care of certainthings during his khutbah."

    Volume2, Page 142: It is forbidden to speak during the khutbah

    The majority of the scholars are of the opinion that it is obligatory to besilent during the khutbah, and one is not to indulge in conversation during thekhutbah, not even if it is to order one to do some good or to stop some evil,and this rule applies whether or not the person sitting in the mosque canactually hear the khutbah.

    Ibn 'Abbas reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said:"Whoever speaks in Jumu'ah while the imam is delivering the khutbah islike a donkey who is carrying books, and for those who tell him to be quiet,there is no [reward] for the Jumu'ah." This is related by Ahmad, ibnabi-Shaibah, al-Bazzar, and at-Tabarani. Ibn Hajar said in Bulugh alMaram:"There is no fault in its chain."

    'Abdullah ibn 'Amr reports that the Messenger of Allah said: "There arethree types of people who attend the Jumu'ah: one, a man who is present butspeaks [during the speech], and that is his portion of the prayer; two, a manwho is present and makes supplications - in his case, Allah may give him whathe asks, if He wishes, or He may not give him what he asks, three, a person whois present and observes silence and does not step over the necks of the Muslimsnor harm anyone - for him, there is expiation from that Jumu'ah until the nextJumu'ah plus an additional three days as Allah has said: 'He that does goodshall have ten times as much to his credit.'" This is related by Ahmad andAbu Dawud with a good chain.

    Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet said: "If, during the Jumu'ahwhile the imam is delivering khutbah, you tell your companion to be quiet, thenyou have spoken needlessly." This is related by the group, save Ibn Majah.

    Abu ad-Darda' says: "The Prophet was upon the pulpit and was addressingthe people and he recited a verse, and next to me was Ubayy ibn-Ka'b and Iasked him: When was that verse revealed?' He refused to talk to me until theMessenger of Allah came down from the pulpit and then he said to me: 'You havenothing from your Jumu'ah, except your useless talk.' When the Prophet hadfinished, I went to him and informed him of what had happened, and he said:'Ubayy has told the truth. If you hear your imam speaking, be quiet until he isfinished.''' This is related by Ahmad and at-Tabarani.

    Ahmad and ash-Shaf'i are reported to have made a distinction, concerningthis ruling, between one who can hear the speech and the one who cannot hearthe speech, saying that speaking is forbidden for the former and not for thelatter, although it is preferred for the latter also to be silent.

    At-Tirmizhi records that Ahmad and Ishaq made an exception for replying to asalutation and responding to a sneeze while the imam is delivering the Fridaykhutbah. According to ash-Shaf'i: "If a person sneezes [during thekhutbah] and someone says: 'May Allah bless you,' I wish I could haveaccomadated it since such a reply is a sunnah. In my view it is makruh that aperson should greet someone with salam [while they are listening to thekhutbah]. [What makes it worse is] that his salam is not returned, even thoughsaying salam is a sunnah while responding to it is a fard.

    Volume2, Page 143: Indulging in conversation when the khutbah is not being delivered,is permissible

    Tha'labah ibn abi-Malik says: "We would be talking on Jumu'ah while'Umar was sitting on the pulpit and when the call to salah was finished 'Umarwould stand and no one would utter a word until he had completely finished bothof his khutbahs. When the iqamah was made and 'Umar came down from the pulpit,the people would then speak." This is related by ash-Shaf'i in his Musnad.

    Ahmad records, with a sahih chain, that while the azhan was being made,'Uthman ibn-'Affan would be sitting on the pulpit, apprising the people oftheir situation and the prices of some commodities.

    Volume2, Page 143a: Catching One Rak'ah or Less of the Jumu'ah

    Most of the people of knowledge are of the opinion that if a person catchesonly one rak'ah of al-Jumu'ah, then that rak'ah will be valid and the personneed only make up the one rak'ah that he misses.

    Ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said:"Whoever catches only one rak'ah of the salah and then adds to it theother one, his prayer will be complete." This is related by an-Nasa'i, IbnMajah, and ad-Daraqutni. In Bulugh al-Maram, Ibn Hajar says that its chain issahih although Abu Hatim says that the strongest opinion is that it is mursal.

    Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said:"Whoever catches one rak'ah of the prayer has indeed caught the wholeprayer." This is related by the group.

    Whoever catches less than one rak'ah of the salah has not caught the Jumu'ahand he is to pray four rak'at of the zuhr salah according to the majority ofthe scholars.

    Ibn Mas'ud says: "Whoever catches one rak'ah from al-Jumu'ah is only toadd another one to it. Whoever misses both rak'at is to pray four rak'at."This is related by at-Tabarani with a good chain.

    Ibn 'Umar says: "If one catches from the Friday salah one rak'ah, thenhe is to add another one to it. If he catches only the sitting [at the end ofthe prayer, following the bowing], then he is to pray four [rak'at]." Thisis related by al-Baihaqi. Such is the opinion of the Shaf'i, Maliki, andHanbali schools, and Muhammad ibn al-Hassan. Abu Hanifah and Abu Yusuf say thatif one catches the tashahud with the imam, then he has caught al-Jumu'ah. Heshould pray two rak'at after the imam makes the taslim, and his Friday salahwould be complete.

    Volume2, Page 144: Offering the salah in a crowded area

    Ahmad and al-Baihaqi relate from Sayyar that 'Umar was giving an address andsaid: "The Messenger of Allah built this mosque and we were with him[i.e., the emigrants and the helpers], and if it becomes very crowded, a personamong you is to make the prostration on the back of his brother." When, hesaw some people praying in the street, he said to them: "Pray in themosque."

    Volume2, Page 144a: Nawaf'l before and after al-Jumu'ah

    It is a sunnah to pray four rak'at or two rak'at after al-Jumu'ah: Abu Hurairahreports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever is topray after the Jumu'ah should pray four rak'at." This is related byMuslim, Abu Dawud, and at-Tirmizhi.

    Ya'la ibn Umayyah reports that he heard the Prophet recite, while on thepulpit: "And they cry: O Malik!..." (az-Zukhruf 77). This is relatedby al-Bukhari and Muslim.

    Ibn 'Umar says: "The Prophet would pray two rak'at in his house on theday of Jumu'ah." This is related by the group.

    Ibn al-Qayyim says: "After the Prophet finished the Jumu'ah, he wouldenter his house and pray two rak'at, and he ordered those who prayed theJumu'ah to pray four rak'at after it.

    Our sheikh Ibn Taimiyyah says: 'When he prayed in the mosque, he would prayfour [rak'at], and when he prayed in his house, he would pray two rak'at.' Isay: this is what the hadith is pointing to. Abu Dawud records from ibn 'Umarthat when he prayed in the mosque, he would pray four rak'at, and when heprayed in his house, he would pray two rak'at. Also, in the two Sahihs it isreported from ibn 'Umar that the Prophet would pray two rak'at in his houseafter the Friday salah."

    If one prays four rak'at, then, according to some, he is to pray them allconnected, while others hold that he is to pray two rak'at, make the taslim,followed by another two rak'at. It is preferred to pray them in one's house. Ifone prays them in the mosque, he should change his place of prayer after theFriday salah.

    Concerning any sunnah prayer before the Friday salah, Ibn Taimiyyah writes:"The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam never offered any salah after theazhan and before the Friday salah, and no one has ever related such an act fromhim. During the Prophet's time, there was only one azhan and that was made whenthe Prophet sat upon the pulpit. Bilal would make the azhan and then theProphet would give the two khutbahs. Next, Bilal would make the iqamah and theProphet would lead the people in salah. It is not possible that the Prophetwould have made a salah after the azhan nor anyone else among the Muslims whoprayed with the Prophet could have done so. And we have no evidence to showthat the Prophet, sallallahu alehi wasallam, prayed in his house before goingout to the mosque on Friday. He did not specify any time for any salah beforethe Friday salah. What he said was meant to exhort those going early to themosque on Friday to engage themselves in prayer. He said: 'Whoever goes outearly and walks and does not ride to the mosque and prays what has beenprescribed [by Allah] for him...' That has been related from the Prophet'scompanions. When they would reach the mosque on Friday, they would praywhatever amount was easy for them. Some of them prayed ten rak'at and someprayed twelve and some only eight and others less than that. For this reasonmost of the scholars are of the opinion that there is no sunnah prayer with aspecified number of rak'ah or time, before aljumu'ah, for there is nothingeither in the actions or statements of the Prophet to support or confirm it.

    Volume2, Page 145: Salatul Jumu'ah and Salatul 'Id occurring on the same day

    If the day of 'Id occurs on Jumu'ah, then salatul Jumu'ah is no longer anobligation upon those who performed the salatul 'Id.

    Zaid ibn Arqam says: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam prayed thesalatul 'id and then he gave an exemption concerning the Jumu'ah, saying:'Whoever wishes to pray it may pray it.'" This is related by the five andal-Hakim. Ibn Khuzaimah calls it sahih.

    Abu Hurairah reports that the prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said:"Two festivals have occurred together on this day of yours. For whosoeverdesires, this will suffice for his salatul Jumu'ah, but we are going to performsalatul Jumu'ah." This is related by Abu Dawud.

    It is preferred for the imam to perform the Jumu'ah so anyone who wishes toperform it may do so as well as those who were not able to attend the 'idprayer. The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "We are going toperform the salatul Jumu'ah."

    According to the Hanbali school, the zuhr is obligatory upon anyone who doesnot attend the salatul Jumu'ah because he has performed the 'id prayer.Nevertheless, it apparently is not obligatory as there is a hadith in Sunan AbuDawud in which Ibn az-Zubair says: "'Id and Jumu'ah occurred on the sameday so he joined them and prayed two rak'at at an early time, and did not addanything to it until 'asr.


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