Fiqh Assunah

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  • Fiqh Assunah

  • Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Volume 5: Tawaf or Circumambulation around Ka'bah

    Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Volume 5: Tawaf or Circumambulation around Ka'bah

    Volume5, Page 69a: Performing Tawaf

    -1- One must begin tawaf (circumambulation) with one's right shoulderuncovered, and the Ka'bah on one's left side, while facing the Black Stone,kissing it, if possible, or touching it with one's hand, or pointing in itsdirection, and saying, Bismillah wallahak baalla humma imanan bika wa tasdiqanbikitabika wa wafa'an bi 'ahdika wa ittiba'an li sunnati nabbiyyi sallalahu'alaihi wa sallam (In the Name of Allah. Allah is the Greatest. O Allah! [Ibegin this tawafl believing in You, affirming the truth of Your Book,fulfilling my covenant with You, and following the example of the Prophet,peace be upon him)."

    -2- Jogging lightly through the first three rounds around Ka'bah isencouraged. One should walk fast, keep close to Ka'bah as much as possible, andtake short steps. In the next four rounds one should walk at normal pace. Ifone is unable to jog or get closer to Ka'bah, because of overcrowding around it,one may perform one's tawaf in any way possible.

    Touching the Yemeni corner (Ar-Ruknul Yemeni) is encouraged, and so iskissing or touching the Black Stone in each of the seven rounds of tawaf, ifpossible.

    -3- Making remembrance of Allah and supplicating to Him as much as possibleis also encouraged. For this purpose one may choose any supplications that onefeels comfortable with, without restricting oneself to any supplications orrepeating what others (around one may be saying). There are no setsupplications prescribed for this purpose. The supplications that some peopletake as prescribed for various rounds of tawaf have no authenticity. No suchsupplications are reported from the Prophet (peace be upon him). One shouldpray for oneself, for one's family and one' s Muslim brethren for anything goodin this life or in the hereafter.

    Some of the supplications that are reported in this regard are given below:

    -1- Upon facing the Black Stone the Prophet (peace be upon him) said:"Allahumma imanan bika wa tasdiqan bikitabik wa wafa 'an bi'ahadika waItba'an li sunnat nabbiyyika bismillahi wallahu akbar (This is reporteddirectly from the Prophet (peace be upon him)) (O Allah! I begin this tawafbelieving in You, affirming the truth of Your Book, fulfilling my covenant withYou, and following the example of Your Prophet, peace be upon him. In the Nameof Allah! Allah is the Greatest!)"

    -2- Upon commencing the tawaf the Prophet (peace be on him) said:"Subhan Allah wal hamdu lillah wa la ilaha illallah wallahu akbar wa lahaula wa la quwwata illa billah (Glory to Allah, All praise is due to Allah,there is no god but Allah. Allah is the Greatest. There is no might nor powerexcept with Allah)." (Ibn Majah)

    -3- Upon reaching the Yemeni corner the Prophet (peace be upon him) said:"Rabbana aatina fid dunniyya hasanatan wa fil akhirati hasanatan wa qina'azhaban nar (Our Lord! Grant us good in this world and good in the hereafter,and save us from the punishment of the Fire).'' (Reported by Abu Daw'ud, andAsh-Shafi'i from the Prophet (peace be upon him) on the authority of 'Umar)

    -4- Ash-Shafi'i said: "I like that each time on passing the Black Stoneone should say Allahu Akbar, and while jogging one should supplicate and say:Allahumma ij 'alhu hajjan mabruran wa zhanban maghfuran wa Sa'iyan mashkuran (OAllah! Let this be an accepted Hajj, with sins forgiven, and a well appreciatedeffort)." And during each round of tawaf he would say: "Rabbighfirwarham wa'fu 'ama ta'lam wa antal a'azzul akram allahumma aatina fid dunniyyahasanatan wafil aakhirati hasantan wa qina 'azhaban nar. (O my Lord. Forgiveus, and have mercy upon us, pardon our sins that You only know, You are theMost Honored and Dignified. O Allah! Grant us good in this world and good inthe hereafter, and protect us from the torment of the fire)."

    It is reported about Ibn 'Abbas that while walking between the Yemeni cornerand the Black Stone he used to say: "Allahumma qanni'nibima razaqtani wabarik lifihi wakhluf 'alayya kulla gha'ibatin bikhair. (O Allah! Let me besatisfied with what you provided me, O Allah! Bless it for me. O Allah!Substitute every good thing that I missed with something good."(Reportedby Sa'id bin Mansur and al-Hakim)

    Volume5, Page 71: Reciting the Qur'an in Tawaf

    A person may recite the Qur'an while performing tawaf, because the purposeof tawaf is to remember Allah and the Qur'an is a reminder and a remembrance ofAllah. 'Aishah reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "Tawaf(circumambulation) around the House of Allah, walking between Safa and Marwah,and throwing the pebbles at the Jamarahs are instituted for the remembrance ofAllah." (Reported by Abu Daw'ud and Tirrnizhi who considers it a sound hadith)

    Volume5, Page 71a: Excellence of Tawaf

    Ibn 'Abbas reported that Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said,"Every day Allah descends a hundred and twenty folds of His Mercy to Hisslaves who perform Hajj (to His House). Sixty-fold of these are specified forpeople performing tawaf, forty-fold for those who pray there, and twenty forthose who look at the Ka'bah."

    -5- Upon completing one's tawaf, one must offer a two rak'ah prayer at theStation of Ibrahim, reciting the verse of the Qur'an 2.125 "And take theStation of Abraham as a place of prayer." This will complete one tawafaround the Ka'bah.

    This tawaf is called Tawafal Qudum (Arrival Circumambulation), if a pilgrimis performing a mufrid (single) Hajj. Otherwise it is called Tawaf al Tahayya(Circumambulation of Greeting), or Tawafad Dakhul (Circumambulation of Entry).It is neither an essential condition nor an obligation. For a pilgrimperforming Hajj Tamattu' (combining Hajj and 'Umrah with a break), orperforming Hajj Qiran (combining Hajj and 'Umrah without a break), it isTawafal 'Umrah ('Umrah Circumambulation), and after having performed it apilgrim does not need to perform a Tawafal Tahaya or Tawafal Qudum. Such apilgrim must, however, complete his 'Umrah making a Sa'i (seven rounds of walking)between the hills of Safa and Marwah.

    Volume5, Page 72: Kinds of Tawaf

    -1- Tawafal Qudum (Arrival Circumambulation).

    -2- Tawafal Ifada (Return from Mina Circumambulation).

    -3- Tawafal Wida' (Farewell Circumambulation). We will deal with it separatelyat its place.

    -4- Tawafat Tatawwu' (Supererogatory Circumambulation).

    The pilgrim should make full use of his stay at Makkah performing as muchsupererogatory tauaf and prayers in the Sacred Mosque as possible. A prayer init is better than a hundred thousand prayers in any other mosque. In asupererogatory tawaf one may not uncover one's shoulder or jog. It is sunnah toperform a tawaf of Ka'bah as a salutation to the Sacred Mosque upon enteringit, unlike other mosques where on entering them a two rakah prayer is offeredas a salutation to the mosque.

    Volume5, Page 72a: Prerequisites of Tawaf, Cleanliness from all major or minorphysical impurities.

    The Hanafi school holds that cleanliness from impurities is not a necessarycondition, but an obligation which, if not found, may be compensated by asacrifice. Thus if somone performs a Tawaf in a state of minor impurity histawaf will be valid, but he will have to offer a sheep in sacrifice. If such aperson is junub or ha'id his or her tawaf will still be valid, but he or shewill have to sacrifice a camel as a penalty and repeat the tawaf as long as heor she is in Makkah. As to the cleanliness of clothes or body, the Hanafischool takes it as a sunnah only.

    Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "Tawafis (similar to) a prayer ... but Allah, the Almighty, has made talking for one(engaged in tawaf) permissible. So, whoso speaks (while performing tawaf)should say only good things. (Tirmizhi and Ad-Daraqutni. Also reported by Al-Hakim,Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Al-Sakan as a sound hadith)

    'Aishah reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) entered her apartmentand tound her crying. He asked her, "Has your monthly course set in?"That is, are you weeping because you are menstruating? She replied,"Yes." Upon this the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "This isa matter inscribed by Allah, the Almighty, for all daughters of Adam. Youshould perform all the rites of Hajj, except tawaf (circumambulation) - whichyou should perform after taking a complete bath (when you are clean)."(Reported by Muslim) 'Aishah also said: "The very first thing that theProphet (peace be upon him) did upon arriving in Makkah was to perform Wudu andthen make a tawaf of Ka'bah." (Bukhari and Muslim)

    There is consensus that if one suffers from an illness that causes one to becontinuously impure physically, such as leaking urine or continuous bleeding inthe case of a menstruating woman, one may perform tawaf without incurring anypenalty or need for making compensation. Malik related that a woman came toAbdullah bin Umar seeking a verdict. She said, "I came to the SacredMosque to pertorm tawaf, but when I arrived at the door of the Mosque I startedbleeding. So I went away and waited until I became clean, and then returned tothe Sacred Mosque. But again when I arrived at the door I started bleeding. Iwent back and returned when I was clean. But when I arrived at the door of theMosque I started bleeding again. (What should I do?)" Ibn 'Umar said,"That bleeding is a spurt trom the devil. You should take a bath, placesome pads on your private parts, and then perform your tawaf."

    Volume5, Page 73: Covering One's 'Awrah

    The male should cover from the navel to the knee, and the female all herbody except her face, hands and feet. (Tran.) Abu Hurairah reported:"During the Hajj for which Abu Bakr was appointed the leader by Allah'sMessenger (peace be upon him), before the Farewell Hajj, Abu Bakr sent me witha group to announce the Day of Nahr - the 10th of Zhul-Hijjah - and toproclaim: 'No idolater nor any naked person shall be allowed to perform tawafof the Ka'bah after this year.'' (Bukhari and Muslim)

    Volume5, Page 73a: One Must Complete Seven Rounds of the Ka'bah

    Thus, if one leaves even a single step in any of the seven rounds that roundwill not be counted. If one is doubtful as to the number of rounds performed,one must assume the least number of rounds, and then complete the seven rounds.In cases where one completes a Tawaf and then finds oneself not so sure aboutthe number of rounds performed, one incurs no penalty nor is required to doanything.

    Volume5, Page 73b: One Must Begin and End One's Tawaf at the Black Stone. Volume 5, Page 73c: When Making Tawafthe Ka'bah Should Be to the Left of the Person Performing Tawaf.Circumambulating with the Ka bah on one's right is invalid

    Jabir (may Allah be pleased with him) reported: "When Allah's Messengerarrived in Makkah, he went to the Black Stone, kissed it, and then walked onits right side. He jogged three rounds and walked the remaining four.''(Muslim)

    Volume5, Page 74: Tawaf Must Be Performed Outside and Around the Ka'bah

    Thus if someone were to walk within the Hijr (Commonly known as HijrIsma'il, and situated to the north of Ka'bah, it is surrounded by asemicircular wall. Of this, only an area of six cubits (three metresapproximately) extending from the Ka'bah is its part) his tawaf will not bevalid, because both Hijr and Al-Shazarwan (Al-Shazarwan is the constructioncontiguous to the Ka'bah to which are fixed the rings holding the Ka'bah cover)are a part of the Ka'bah. Allah has commanded us to circumambulate around theKa'bah and not inside it, saying: "...and circumambulate the Ancient House.''(Qur'an 22.29) It is preferable, however, to remain close to the Ka'bah, if onecan do so easily.

    Volume5, Page 74a: Tawaf (circumambulation) should be immediately followed by Sa'i(between Safa and Marwah)

    A short break in between the two, however, may be made. A longer intervalbecause of a genuine excuse will also do no harm and is permissible. The Hanafiand Shafi'i schools hold that such a continuance (of Sa'i immediately aftertawaf) is Sunnah of the Prophet.

    Similarly there is no harm if one performs tawaf in parts and with longintervals in between, and even if it is done without any genuine reason. Such aperson may continue the remaining rounds and complete his tawaf.

    Sa'id bin Mansur reported from Humaid bin Zaid that he said: "I saw'Abdullah bin 'Umar go three or four times around the Ka'bah, and he then satdown for a rest, while his servant fanned him. Then he resumed his Tawaf fromwhere he had left it. Both Shafi'i and Hanafi schools hold that if one'sablution is void during the tawaf; one should redo it and resume the tawaf tocomplete its remaining rounds, regardless of the length of the interval.

    It is reported that once Ibn 'Umar heard the call for prayer while he wasperforming his tawaf. He interrupted his tawaf and offered the prayers with thecongregation. Then he resumed his tawaf from where he had left it.

    'Ata is reported to have given a verdict concerning a person who had tointerrupt his tawaf in order to participate in a funeral prayer, saying thatsuch a person may resume his tawaf and complete the remaining rounds.

    Volume5, Page 74b: Sunnah of Tawaf

    It is Sunnah to perform certain acts in tawaf as given below:

    -1- Facing the Black Stone at the start of the tawaf while uttering a takbir(Allahu-Akbar), and a tahlil (La ilaha illahlah), and raising one's hands asthey are raised in prayers, and if possible touching it with both hands andkissing it quietly, or placing one's cheek on it. Otherwise. one may touch itwith one's hand and kiss the hand, or touch it with something, and then kissit, or if even that is not possible, one may just point to it with a stick,etc. as is mentioned in some of the ahadith given below.

    Ibn 'Umar said: "Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) faced the BlackStone, touched it, and then placed his lips on it and wept for a longtime." 'Umar also wept for a long time. The Prophet (peace be upon him)said: 'O 'Umar, this is the place where one should shed tears.''' (Reported byAl-Hakim, who considers it a sound hadith with a sound chain of authorities)

    It is reported by Ibn 'Abbas that 'Umar bent down towards the Black Stoneand said: "By Allah! I know that you are a mere stone, and if I had notseen my beloved Prophet (peace be upon him) kissing you and touching you Iwould have never done so." The Qur'an says: "You have indeed in theMessenger of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct)."' (Qur'an 33.32) Thiswas reported by Ahmad and others in slightly different words.

    Nafi' said, "I have seen Ibn 'Umar touching the Black Stone with hishand, and then kissing his hand and saying: 'Ever since I saw the Prophet(peace be upon him) doing this, I have never failed to do that.''' (Reported byBukhari and Muslim)

    Sowayd bin Ghaflah said: "I have seen 'Umar kissing the Black Stone andtouching it." He further said: "I know that the Prophet (peace beupon him) was especially very particular about it.'' (Muslim) Ibn 'Umarreported that Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) used to come to Ka'bah,touch the Black Stone and then say: Bismillahi wallahu akbar (In the name ofAllah, Allah is the Greatest.)" (Ahmad) Muslim has reported on theauthority of Abu Tufail that he said: "I have seen the Prophet (peace beupon him) making tawaf around the Ka'bah and touching it with a stick and thenkissing the stick."

    Bukhari, Muslim and Abu Daw'ud reported that 'Umar approached the BlackStone and kissed it. Then he said: "I know that you are a mere stone thatcan neither harm nor do any good. If I had not seen the Prophet (peace be uponhim) kissing you, I would have never kissed you."

    Al-Khatabi said: "This shows that abiding by the Sunnah of the Prophet(peace be upon him) is binding, regardless of whether or not we understand itsreason or the wisdom behind it."

    Such information devolves obligation on all those whom it reaches, even ifthey may not fully comprehend its significance. It is known, however, thatkissing the Black Stone signifies respect for it, recognition of our obligationtoward it, and using it as a means of seeking Allah's blessings. Indeed Allahhas preferred some stones over others, as He preferred some countries andcities, days and nights, and months over others. The underlying spirit of allthis is unquestioning submission to Allah.

    In some ahadith which say that "the Black Stone is Allah's right handon earth," we do find, however, a plausible rationale and justificationfor this statement. In other words whosoever touches the Black Stone he pledgesallegiance to Allah, as it were, by giving his hand into the hand of Allah,just as some followers do pledge their fealty to their kings and masters, bykissing and shaking hands with them.

    Al-Muhallib said: "The hadith of 'Umar refutes the assertions of thosewho say that 'The Black Stone is Allah's right hand on earth wherewith Heshakes the hands of His slaves."' God forbid that we should ascribe anyphysical organs to Allah. The commandment to kiss the Black Stone is meant totest and to demonstrate palpably as to who obeys and submits. It may becompared with the command to Iblis to bow to Adam.

    We have no definite evidence, however, to believe that any of the stonesused in building the Ka'bah originally (by Ibrahim and Isma'il), is still inexistence today excepting the Black Stone.

    Volume5, Page 76: Crowding at the Black Stone

    There is no harm in crowding around the Black Stone so long as no harm iscaused to other people. Ibn 'Umar used to struggle hard to get through thecrowd in order to reach the Black Stone, so much so that sometimes (he wasstruck on the face and) his nose would bleed. The Prophet (peace be upon him)said to 'Umar: "O Abu Hafs! You are a strong man. Do not crowd othersaround the Black Stone. You may hurt a weak person. But if you find anopportunity to reach it in order to kiss it or touch it, do it. If not, thensay 'Allahu-Akbar' and continue (your tawaf).'' (Reported by Ash-Shafi'l in hisSunan)

    Volume5, Page 76a: Al-Idtiba' (Uncovering one's shoulder)

    It is reported by Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet (peace be upon him) and hiscompanions declared their intention to perform 'Umrah from al-Ji'ranah byputting on their ihram (Hajj garb) but leaving their right shoulders uncovered,bringing their ihram up from under their right armpits while covering the leftshoulder. (Reported by Ahmad and Abu Daw'ud) The majority of scholars holds asimilar view and claims that doing so is helpful in ramal ( jogging) whilemaking a tawaf. Malik is of the opinion, however, that doing so is notcommended. for it is not a known (practice), nor did he see anyone doing so.There is consensus that it is undesirable in the tawaf prayer (salatul tawaf).

    Volume5, Page 76b: Ramal 23 or Jogging

    Ramal means walking fast, vigorously moving the shoulders and taking smallsteps, giving a sense of strength and energy. Ibn 'Umar reported that Allah'sMessenger (peace be upon him) jogged from the Black Stone to the Black Stonethree times, and walked the remaining four rounds. (Muslim and Ahmad) If aperson does not jog in the first three rounds, then he is not required to makeit up in the last four rounds. Ramal (Jogging) and idtiba' (uncovering one'sright shoulder) are prescribed for men only while making tawaffor 'Umrah. Incase of a pilgrim performing Hajj, tawaf is always followed by Sa'i (walkingbetween Safa and Marwah) . Shafi'i school holds that a pilgrim, who does makeidtiba' (i.e., uncovers his right shoulder) and performs ramal (i.e., jogs),while making Tawaf al Qudum on arrival and then making Sa'i between Safa andMarwah, is not required to repeat idtiba' and ramal in his Tawaf al Ifada(after returning from 'Arafah). If one does not perform Sa'i after making tawafand postpones it till after Tawaf az-Ziarah (Tawaf of Visit), he should makeidtiba' (uncover his right shoulder) and perform ramal (jog) while making Tawafaz-Ziarah.

    Women are not obligated to jog or uncover their right shoulder, because theymust properly cover themselves. Ibn 'Umar said: -Women are not obligated to jogaround the Ka'bah nor while making Sa`i between Safa and Marwah."(Reported by Al-Baihaqi)

    Volume5, Page 77: Wisdom Behind Ramal

    What is the wisdom behind ramal? It is reported by Ibn 'Abbas that when theProphet (peace be upon him) and his companions came to Makkah, they wereweakened by the fever in Yathrib. Thereupon the idolators said, ''A peopleweakened with fever have come to you and they are aMicted with evil."Allah. the Almighty, informed His Prophet (peace be upon him) about theirsaying. So he commanded them to jog through the first three rounds of tawafaround the Ka'bah, and to walk between its two corners. When the idolaters sawthe Muslims jogging, they said: "Are those the people you said are weakbecause of the fever? They are stronger and sturdier than us!" Ibn 'Abbasadded: "The Prophet (peace be upon him) did not command them to jog allthrough the seven rounds in order not to overexert themselves." This wasreported by Bukhari, Muslim, and Abu Daw'ud, whose wording is given here.

    'Umar was of the opinion that jogging be stopped as there was no longer anyneed for it after the Muslims had become strong and powerful. But he decided,however, to leave it (in its original form) so that the future generations ofMuslims could share a form and a feeling similar to that observed and felt byearly Muslims. Muhibbuddin At-Tabari said: "Sometimes certain instructionsare prescribed in the religion for a specific reason, and later even though thatspecilic reason no longer exists yet the instructions still remain valid."

    Zaid bin Aslam reported from his father that he said: "I heard 'Umaribn Al-Khattab saying: 'Why jog around the Ka'bah today'? Why uncover ourshoulders (in tawaf)? Allah has made Islam strong and powerful, and banisheddisbelief and the disbelievers, yet we shall never abandon what we used to doin the time of the Prophet (peace be upon him)."

    Volume5, Page 78: Touching the Yemeni Corner

    This is based on the statement of Ibn 'Umar in which he said "I neversaw the Prophet (peace be upon him) touching any other parts of Ka'bah exceptthe two corners: The Black Stone and the Yemeni corner." And he added,"No matter how hard and difficult the circumstances, I have not failed totouch these two corners - the Yemeni Corner and the Black Stone - ever since Isaw the Prophet (peace be upon him) doing so." (Reported by Bukhari andMuslim)

    A pilgrim making tawaf touches these two corners, and no others, because oftheir special merits and excellence. The Black Stone is distinguished by twothings:

    -1- it is placed on the foundations raised by the Prophet Ibrahim (peace beupon him), and

    -2- it marks the beginning as well as the end of tawaf. The Yemeni corner isdirectly opposite to it and, like the Black Stone, it is also laid on thefoundations raised by Ibrahim.

    When Ibn 'Umar was told about 'Aishah's statement that "Some of theHijr Isma'il is part of the Ka'bah" he said: "I think that 'Aishahheard that from the Prophet (peace be upon him). I think that the Prophet(peace be upon him) never failed to touch them while making a tawaf These two,however, are not at the foundations of the House, and the people circumambulatearound the Hijr because of that. (Abu Dawud)

    The Muslim community, however, is in agreement concerning the desirabilityof touching these two Yemeni corners. A person making tawaf of Ka'bah may nottouch the other two corners. Ibn Hibban has reported in his Sahih that theProphet (peace be upon him) said: "The Black Stone and the Yemeni cornercause the sins to be forgiven."

    Volume5, Page 78a: Offering a Two Rak'ah Prayer After Tawaf

    It is sunnah to offer a two rak'ah prayer after completing the tawaf at theStation of Ibrahim (peace be upon him), or at any other place in the SacredMosque, regardless of whether it is a supererogatory tawaf or obligatory one(as in Hajj or 'Umrah).

    Jabir reported that "When the Prophet (peace be upon him) came toMakkah, he went around the Ka'bah seven times, then went to the Station ofIbrahim and recited the verse (Qur'an 2.125): "And take of the Station ofAbraham a place of prayer." He prayed behind it, and then went to theBlack Stone and kissed it." (Reported by Tirmizhi who considers it a soundhadith)

    In this two rak'ah prayer, it is sunnah to recite Surah Al-Kafirun, in thefirst rak 'ah, and Surah Al-Ikhlas in the second rak 'ah, after recitingAl-Fatihah. (Reported by Muslim and others) These two rak'ahs may be offered atany time of the day and night including the prohibited times.

    Jubair bin Mut'im reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said,"O Bani Abd Manaf! Do not prevent anyone from performing tawaf around theKa'bah. One may pray (in the Sacred Mosque) any time during the day ornight." (Reported by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and Tirmizhi who regards it a soundhadith) Ash-Shafi'i and Ahmad hold this view.

    Though it is sunnah to offer this two rak'ah prayer after the tawaf in theSacred Mosque, it may also be offered outside the Mosque. Umm Salamah reportedthat she performed a tawaf around the House riding, but she did not offer thetwo rak'ah prayer until she had left the Mosque. (Bukhari) Malik reported from'Umar that he offered these two rak'ahs at Zhi Tuwa valley. Bukhari also hasreported that 'Umar prayed (these two rak'ahs) outside the Sacred Mosque.

    If one offered a prescribed prayer after the tawclf then he need not offerthis two rak'ah prayer. The Shafi'i school holds this view, which is also inaccordance with the well known position of Ahmad. The Maliki and the Hanafischools are of the opinion that these two rak'ahs must be offered and no otherprayer can replace them.

    Volume5, Page 79: Passing in Front of Worshippers in the Sacred Mosque

    It is permissible to offer prayer in the Sacred Mosque while the people,male and female, pass in front of the worshipper. There is no harm in it, andit is one of the special characteristics of the Sacred Mosque. Kathir binKathir bin Al-Mutalib bin Wida'ah reported from some of his family members andfrom his grandfather that he said: "I saw the Prophet (peace be upon him)offering prayer in the Sacred Mosque in the area adjacent to Bani Sahm whilepeople passed in front of him but he did not place any sutrah (protection) infront of him." Suffiyan bin 'Uyainah said, "There was no partitionbetween him and the Ka'bah." (Reported by Abu Daw ud Nasa'i, and IbnMajah)

    Volume5, Page 79a: Men and Women Performing Tawaf Together

    Ibn Juraij reported: "'Ata told me that when Ibn Hisham forbade womenfrom performing tawaf along with men he asked him, 'How dare you prevent themwhile the wives of the Prophet (peace be upon him) performed tawaf along withother men?' He added: 'I asked him:"Did they do so betore or after thecommandment to observe veil?" He said: "They did so after therevelation of the commandment to veil." I said: "How could theyintermingle with men?" He said: "They did not intermingle with men.'Aishah used to perform tawaf keeping apart from men and without interminglingwith them. A woman asked her, "O Mother of Believers ! Shall we touch theBlack Stone and kiss it? 'Aishah said: "Get away from here, and sherefused to join her. (Bukhari) They used to go disguised at night and performtawaf with men, but when they entered the Mosque, they would wait and go inwhen the men left.

    Women may touch and kiss the Black Stone when there is an opportunity and nomen are around. It is reported that 'Aishah said to a woman, "Do not crowdwith others at the Black Stone, but if you find a chance, touch and kiss it, otherwiseif there is crowding, then say a takhir (Allah is the Greatest) when you areopposite to it, and make your tawaf and do not cause any harm to anyone."

    Volume5, Page 80: Making a Tawaf while Riding

    A person may, even if he is able to walk, perform tawaf while riding,provided there is a valid reason for doing so.

    Ibn 'Abbas reported that during the Farewell Pilgrimage the Prophet (peacebe upon him) performed tawaf while riding his camel, and touched the BlackStone with a stick (that he carried). (Reported by Bukhari and Muslim)

    Jabir reported that during the Farewell Pilgrimage the Prophet (peace beupon him) performed tawaf and made Sa'i between Safa and Marwah while riding onhis mount, so as to show it to the people, to draw their attention, and (togive them an opportunity) to ask him any questions (they had), and the peoplewere crowding around him."

    Volume5, Page 80a: Intermingling of a Leper with Others in Tawaf

    Malik reported from Ibn Abi Mulaikah that 'Umar bin Al-Khattab saw a womanaMicted with leprosy performing tawaf with others. He said to her, "Omaidservant of Allah! Do not harm others. Why do you not stay in yourhome?" She did so and stayed at her home. Upon the death of 'Umar, a manvisited her and said, "The one who forbade you to circumambulate theKa'bah has passed away. You may now go and perform tawaf." She replied,"I shall not obey a person in his life, and disobey him after hisdeath."

    Volume5, Page 80b: Desirability of Drinking Zamzam Water

    Upon completion of the seven rounds of the tawaf; and after offering the tworak'ahs by the Station of Ibrahim, it is encouraged to drink water from thewell of Zamzam.

    Both Bukhari and Muslim confirm that the Prophet (peace be upon him) drankof Zamzam water, and said, "It is blessed (water); it is food for thehungry, and a healing for the sick.' It is reported that the angel Gabriel hadwashed the heart of the Prophet (peace be upon him) with its water on the NightJourney.

    At-Tabarani in his Al-Kabir, and Ibn Hibban have reported from Ibn 'Abbasthat the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: 'The best water on earth is thewater of Zamzam. It is food for the hungry, and a healing for the sick."(Al-Munzhri said that the chain of narrators of this hadith is sound)

    Volume5, Page 81: Etiquette of Drinking Zamzam Water

    A person drinking Zamzam water should intend and hope for healing, blessingsand whatever is best for him in this life and in the hereafter. The Prophet(peace be upon him) said, "The water of Zamzam is (good) for whatever itis intended."

    Suwaid bin Saeed reported: "When the water of Zamzam was brought toAbdullah bin Al-Mobarak I saw that he drank a little, then turning his facetowards the Ka'bah supplicated, 'O Allah! Ibn Abi Al-Mawali told us on theauthority of Mohammad bin Al-Monkader, who narrated from Jaber that the Messengerof Allah (peace be upon him) said, "The water of Zamzam is good forwhatever one intends (while drinking it)." I intend to drink this water tospare myself from going thirsty on the Day of Judgment.' Then he drank the restof the water." (Reported by Al-Baihaqi, and Ahmad with a sound chain ofauthorities)

    Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "Thewater of Zamzam is good for whatever one intends (while drinking it). If youdrink it seeking healing, Allah will give you healing. If you drink it tosatisfy your hunger, Allah will satisfy your hunger. If you drink it to quenchyour thirst, Allah will quench your thirst. Zamzam is a well dug by the angelGabriel by which Allah quenched the thirst of Isma'il." This was reportedby AdDaraqutni and Al-Hakim who added, "And if you drink it seeking refugewith Allah, Allah will give you refuge."

    It is desirable that one should drink Zamzam water in three breaths, facethe Qiblah, drink as much as possible, praise and thank and supplicate to Himas Ibn 'Abbas did. Abu Molaikah reported: "A man came to Ibn 'Abbas. Heasked the man, 'Where are you coming from?' The man replied: 'I am coming fromthe well of Zamzam.' Ibn 'Abbas asked him, 'Did you drink of it as you aresupposed to?' "The man asked: 'O Ibn 'Abbas, how am I supposed to drinkit?' Ibn 'Abbas replied: 'When you drink its water you should face thedirection of the Qiblah, remember Allah, drink it in three breaths, drink asmuch as you can, and praise and thank Allah when you finish drinking.' TheProphet (peace be upon him) said, ' A major difference between us and thehypocrites is that they do not drink their fill of the Zamzam water'."(Reported by Ibn Majah, Ad-Daraqutni and Al-Hakim)

    Ibn 'Abbas used to supplicate Allah, whenever he drank Zamzam water:"Allahumma inni as'aluka 'ilman nafi`an wa rizqan wasi'an wa shifa an minkuli da in (O Allah! Grant me beneficial knowledge, bountiful provision, and ahealing from every disease)."

    Volume5, Page 82: The Origin of Zamzam Well

    Explaining the origin of Zamzam Ibn 'Abbas said: "When Hajar reachedthe (mountain) of Marwah in search of water for her baby son Isma'il andherself to quench their thirst. she heard a sound, and said to herself,"Quiet." She again heard the sound, whereupon she said, "I haveheard you. Help me, if you can." All of a sudden she found an angel at theplace where now Zamzam is. He either dug it with his heel or touched it (theground) with his wing and a spring of water appeared. Hajar encircled the waterwith soil. She took some water in a container she had, and water kept bubblingup unchecked."

    Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "'MayAllah shower His mercy on Isma'il's mother. Had she left it untouched, or (thenarrator is not sure) the Prophet said, had she not drunk of its water, theZamzam would have turned into a clearflowing spring.' He added, 'So she drankthe water and gave some to her son.' The angel said to her, 'Fear no loss,because this is the site of Allah's House, which this boy and his father shallbuild. Allah never permits His servant to be lost. At the site of the House wasa hill that was split by flood waters running down its right and left."'

    Volume5, Page 82a: Excellence of Supplications at Al-Multazim

    Al-Multazim is the part of Ka'bah between its door and the Black Stone.After drinking the water of Zamzam, it is recommended that one should makespecial supplications at Al-Multazim. Ibn 'Abbas reported that he used to standbetween the Black Stone corner and the Ka'bah door and said, "The spacebetween the Black Stone and the door of the Ka'bah is called 'AlMultazim' andwhoever stands here and supplicates to Allah, he gives him whatever hesupplicates for." (Al-Baihaqi)

    'Amr bin Shu'aib reported from his father, and he from his father that hesaid, "I have seen the Prophet (peace be upon him) placing his face andchest against Al-Multazim."

    (Some scholars including Bukhari say Al-Hateem is Al-Multazim. To supporttheir view they cite the hadith of the Night Journey in which the Prophet(peace be upon him) said "While I was asleep in (the area called) 'al-Hateem" or also called "al-Hijr...")

    This is based on the statement of Ibn 'Umar in which he said "I neversaw the Prophet (peace be upon him) touching any other parts of Ka'bah exceptthe two corners: The Black Stone and the Yemeni corner." And he added,"No matter how hard and difficult the circumstances, I have not failed totouch these two corners - the Yemeni Corner and the Black Stone - ever since Isaw the Prophet (peace be upon him) doing so." (Reported by Bukhari andMuslim)

    Volume5, Page 82b: Entering Ka'bah and Hijr Isma'il and its Excellence

    Ibn 'Umar reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) entered the Ka'bahalong with Usamah bin Zaid, and Uthman bin Talhah and closed its door behindthem. When they came out, Bilal informed me that the Prophet (peace be uponhim) offered a prayer inside the Ka'bah between the two Yemeni corners."(Bukhari and Muslim) This has led some scholars to conclude that enteringKa'bah and offering prayer inside it is sunnah. Others, however, say that evenif it is a sunnah, it is not a part of Hajj rites, as stated by Ibn 'Abbas whenhe said: "O people, entering the Ka'bah is not one of the rites of Hajj.''(Reported by al-Hakim with a sound chain of authorities)

    For a pilgrim unable to enter the Ka'bah it is recommended that he shouldenter the Hijr Isma'il and offer prayer there, because it is a part of theKa'bah. Ahmad reported on sound authority from Sa'id bin Jubair that 'Aishahsaid: "O Prophet of Allah ! All your family except me have been inside theKa'bah ! " The Prophet (peace be upon him) said to her, "Send forShaibah (His name was Ibn 'Uthman bin Talhah; he was tbe key-bearer of theKa'bah) so that he should open the door for you." She did as he had toldher to do. Shaibah said, "We could never open it, during the night duringthe pre-Islamic days, nor during the days of Islam. The Prophet (peace be uponhim) told 'Aishah, "Pray inside the Hijr Isma'il. It is a part of Ka'bah,but your people left it out while rebuilding the Ka'bah and did not include itin its structure."


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